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What organ produces testosterone in a man’s body and what affects hormone production

Testosterone is an anabolic steroid, the main male sex hormone. It plays an important role in the development of reproductive organs, such as the testes and prostate gland, testosterone promotes the development of secondary sexual characteristics in men, increases muscle mass, and causes hair growth on the body in characteristic places. What affects the production of testosterone, you need to clearly know in order to control these factors. This will ultimately ensure a man’s health and well-being.

Where and how is the synthesis

Testosterone is a substance that naturally produces the human body. On average, men form from 6 to 8 milligrams per day. The female body is also capable of producing hormone. Although the chemical nature of testosterone is identical in both sexes, levels are different - in women this figure is 12 times less.

Where testosterone is produced is indicated below:

  • Testicles (> 95% of the total).
  • Seed plants.
  • Adrenal cortex.

The female body produces testosterone with the help of the ovaries and the placenta, which forms during pregnancy.

The entire biosynthesis process is regulated by the endocrine system through the hypothalamus and pituitary gland. The role of the hypothalamus is the production of statins and liberins, which, acting on the pituitary gland, regulate the formation of follicle-stimulating and luteinizing hormones in it. The pituitary products, in turn, will affect the functioning of the endocrine organs, that is, the testicles.

Between all the above endocrine organs, a clear interaction is established.

There is a so-called feedback principle. When the male testosterone level is low, the hypothalamus will begin to produce substances that activate the synthetic function in the pituitary gland, whose products will subsequently affect the testes.

How biosynthesis is affected by the external environment and lifestyle

The production of testosterone in men depends not only on how healthy the body is, it is more influenced by numerous external factors, it is even difficult to calculate how many of them. Among all others, it is worth highlighting the main points:

Alcohol intake reduces testosterone production.

  • Alcohol consumption, smoking and drugs.

Alcohol is one of the main causes of low testosterone. And this is another good reason to stay away from this addiction. Researchers have found that alcohol inhibits the secretion of testosterone in the testes and other organs. And long-term use of alcohol can lead to irreversible damage, the body simply will not be able to produce the amount of androgen that is necessary for the normal functioning of the body. But this does not mean that you need to completely abandon alcohol. For example, soft drinks such as wine have virtually no effect on testosterone levels if not overused.

  • The use of synthetic steroids by athletes.

Anabolics are very harmful to use, it is better to completely abandon them. When a person injects this poison in order to gain muscle mass, the production of endogenous testosterone is inhibited by the principle of negative feedback at the level of the pituitary and hypothalamus. Accordingly, when an athlete stops administering a steroid, the opposite effect and corresponding problems are observed.

Even if you lead a completely healthy lifestyle, there is a chance to encounter a problem in the functioning of the endocrine organs - this is possible in the absence of proper rest after hard working days. Every day, the body should receive 7-8 hours of sleep or more. It is useful to spend a lot of time outdoors, especially in the summer season. Walking at least once a day should be a habit.

Zinc is a very important mineral for the production of testosterone. Its deficiency alone can already lead to low levels of androgen in the blood. Adverse effects are deficiency of magnesium, vitamin K, A and D.

Deficiency of certain vitamins and minerals can adversely affect testosterone production.

  • Overweight.

Conducted scientific studies have shown that in men losing a couple of extra pounds, the production of steroid increases. Testosterone is produced significantly less in obese people, that is, the opposite effect is observed. So, a strong sex must follow its figure, which will protect men from unnecessary health problems.

There is no convincing evidence in favor of masturbation or harm to the synthesis of biologically active substances. Although the Internet can often read stories about people who engage in self-satisfaction too often, and when they leave this habit, the beard and body hair begin to grow at a faster pace. Testosterone is produced more under such conditions, which means that secondary sexual characteristics are more pronounced.

  • Short climbs in the presence of attractive ladies.

According to research, testosterone in men, although temporarily, begins to stand out more than usual when there is a beautiful woman nearby. This is a natural process, a kind of male instinct, the ultimate goal of which is the mating and multiplication of offspring. But if the desired woman will always be nearby, then the increased production of the steroid will not be so short-lived.

  • Injuries and diseases of the testicles.

Damaged Leydig cells of the testicles lose their functional activity, the amount of testosterone produced in men is significantly reduced. Any inflammatory or other diseases of the genital organs must be promptly diagnosed and treated.

Testicular damage can lead to a significant decrease in testosterone production.

This is one of the few factors that a man cannot control. During puberty, the hormone levels in the blood reach maximum figures. This also has phenotypic manifestations: in boys, body hair begins to grow more intensively, the voice changes, thyroid cartilage grows, etc. But over time, the hormone is produced less and less. From the age of 30, production begins to decline, a decrease is observed until death.

Everyone has long noticed that it is much more difficult for men with a lean physique to gain muscle mass. Depending on what genetic material was inherited from the parents, the steroid will be produced in an appropriate amount.

How and where is the steroid hormone produced?

The hormone testosterone in the body of a man secrete testicles (testicles) and adrenal glands. The main function of this biologically active substance is the development of the young man’s reproductive system in adolescence, as well as the regulation of male sexual activity in adulthood.

The normal volume of the hormone ranges from 12.5 to 40.6 nmol / L. With normal values, testosterone performs the following functions:

  1. Provides the full development and functioning of the organs of the reproductive system of men (testicles, prostate gland, penis).
  2. It is directly involved in the synthesis of protein in the muscles, so that they increase.
  3. It affects the appearance in a young man of secondary sexual characteristics (plentiful hair on the body and face).
  4. Improves the blood circulation in the genitals, contributing to a healthy erection in men.
  5. It lowers cholesterol and evenly distributes body fat throughout the body, preventing obesity.
  6. Affects the timbre of the voice of the representative of the stronger sex, making it lower than that of women.
  7. He takes part in the psychophysiological functioning of a man’s behavior, giving the character masculine qualities.
  8. It forms a sexual attraction.

Although the male hormone is produced around the clock in the body, its release into the blood is minimal at 20-22 hours, and in the morning (6 - 8 in the morning) is maximum.

The bulk of the steroid hormone is produced in the testicles (about 5-12 mg / day). In addition, estrogen, androstenedione and DHA are produced in the testicles.

In addition, the hormone also produces the adrenal cortex, but to a lesser extent.

The synthesis of steroid substances is carried out by tubular epithelial cells and Leydig cells located in the testes. The hormone is synthesized from cholesterol, which enters the body of a man with food.

The synthesis is as follows:

  1. From the bloodstream, cholesterol enters the cells in the form of low density lipoproteins or acetate.
  2. Due to the sequential reactions occurring in the cells of the testes, cholesterol is converted into androstenedione.
  3. When two androstenedione molecules combine, testosterone is formed.

The hypothalamic-pituitary system controls the synthesis of testosterone. The functioning of this system is based on the fact that a signal is received from the cells of the testicles to the hypothalamus about the amount of synthesized steroid hormone. The feedback principle begins to work. The required amount of gonadotropins is produced with normal testosterone levels. If the volume of testosterone released into the blood does not correspond to the normal value (increases or decreases), then the level of gonadotropins also changes.

Where is testosterone produced in men?

The bulk of the testosterone in the male body is produced in the testes (testes), But the pituitary gland stimulates this process, synthesizing special mediator cells that control the endocrine system. Testosterone is also produced in small quantities by such an organ as the adrenal glands (including in women).

The hormone itself is inactive, does not bind to protein or carbohydrate compounds. But when exposed to the 5-alpha reductase enzyme, it transforms into dihydrotestosterone, which just stimulates the intercellular metabolic processes (and with it the work of the testes, prostate gland in a mature man).

In which case does the production of testosterone in the male body begin? When a certain concentration of hypothalamic-pituitary mediators is reached in the blood, in particular, GnRH (gonadotropin-releasing hormone) and LH (luteinizing hormone). And already the process of its release is directly controlled by the brain.

Find out: where is testosterone produced in men and how to increase the amount of hormone in the body?

Testosterone is the main male sex hormone responsible not only for secondary sexual characteristics, but also for sperm production. The hormone also takes a direct part in the functioning and development of the reproductive system, and indirectly affects potency.

Where is it produced in a man, on what does his concentration in the blood depend on, how can one make his body synthesize in a natural way?

Synthesis mechanism

What is the place of hormone synthesis? Testosterone in the testes occurs in the so-called Leydig cells, where it is obtained by a biochemical reaction from cholesterol (which eventually breaks down into cholesterol - the same hormone). This process is stimulated with the help of GnRH produced by the pituitary gland. After - testosterone enters the bloodstream, where it circulates both in free form and in conjunction with some proteins (the main one is sex hormone-binding globulin).

If you believe the research, then its last variation takes part in some metabolic processes, but the hormone is free, getting into the target cells, under the influence of 5-alpha reductase is transformed into dihydrotestosterone, which is used by the reproductive system for sperm synthesis.

A significant part is also released into the seminal ducts, where it is in contact with the androgen-binding protein (it is fermented in Sertoli cells). Against this background, the concentration of androgen mediators in the prostate gland increases, which ultimately triggers the process of spermatogenesis (starting from about 13 years of age).

In the adrenal glands, on average, only 5% of testosterone is produced from its total concentration in the body. The synthesis process is similar, but not cholesterol breaks down, but the so-called "metabolic androgens" - carbon compounds. This happens in the mesh and bundle areas of the adrenal glands. The result is the same free form of testosterone, which for the most part is responsible for the normal buildup of organic tissues (skeleton, connective tissue, muscles).

What determines the concentration of the hormone?

Testosterone concentration depends on more than 10 factors, including even the time of day. In the body of a healthy man, the “peak” value of sex hormone reaches in the morning after waking up (at 6-8 o’clock in the morning), and also closer to 5-7 o’clock in the evening. At 10-17 hours of the day its concentration stabilizes.

It is during this period that it is recommended to take tests to establish the current level of androgens in the blood. And at about 22-24 a.m., the level of the hormone drops sharply to a minimum. What does such a “schedule” depend on? First of all - from the activity of the brain and, in particular, the pituitary gland, which completely control the endocrine system.

Does the concentration of testosterone depend on the condition of the man (calm or excited)? No way. Moreover, it is on the level of sex hormone that the degree of possible arousal depends for the most part. If testosterone production is impaired or activity on reductase is reduced in the body, then a man may even have erectile dysfunction, a complete lack of sexual desire for the opposite sex (libido).

The level of hormone formation is also affected by:

  1. The age of a man. The maximum concentration - at about 20-25 years, then - gradually decreases and normalizes after 65-70 years.
  2. Diseases of the endocrine system. These are the so-called primary and secondary hypogonadism.
  3. The digestive tract and cardiovascular system. It is with their help that the necessary amount of cholesterol and protein compounds are accumulated in the body, which are subsequently used by the endocrine system.
  4. Proper brain function namely, its hypothalamic-pituitary part of the brain.


But a sharp decrease in testosterone levels, as directed by doctors, may be a consequence:

  • abuse of nicotine, alcohol,
  • obesity,
  • congenital pathologies,
  • inactive lifestyle (in which metabolism is complexly slowed down),
  • taking certain medications (mainly hormones and steroids),
  • mechanical injuries of the testes.

Along with this, the psycho-emotional state of a man affects the level of testosterone. The relationship between mood and the pituitary gland has been established long ago. This is explained by the fact that in a stressful situation, a huge amount of adrenaline is released into the blood, which is a protagonist of testosterone.

How to speed up secretion at home?

Increasing the concentration of testosterone should be with the normalization of lifestyle. That is, the rejection of bad habits, a healthy and balanced diet, good sleep - this already significantly helps to increase the concentration of androgens by optimizing biochemical processes.

In this regard, it is recommended to consult directly with the endocrinologist, having previously passed tests to determine the concentration of testosterone.

  1. Promotes its synthesis and physical activity. But the body does not need strength training itself, but namely the stimulation of metabolism, in which fat is burned, cholesterol, proteins, carbohydrates are broken down. Being overweight also significantly inhibits metabolic processes in the body, thereby reducing the amount of hormone.
  2. And also Doctors recommend including so-called “aphrodisiacs” in the diet - components that comprehensively stimulate the production of testosterone. The most popular in this regard is ginseng root, as well as spicy spices.
  3. Yet normalize the level of the hormone and improve its quality allows a full sex life. The more often a man has sex, the more actively the testes and the prostate gland work. Moreover, as practice shows, banal masturbation does not have a positive effect on testosterone as a full contact with a woman.

Natural Ways to Stay Healthy

Loss of muscle mass, fatigue, weight gain, depression, difficulty concentrating, low libido, high blood lipids, inability to show sexual activity in a timely manner are just a few of the symptoms that are observed when testosterone is produced less than is necessary to maintain physiological functions body. In order to prevent such problems, each man must adhere to certain rules when planning his lifestyle:

  • Normalization of sleep (at least 7-8 hours a day).
  • Healthy eating It is useful to include seafood (crabs, herring, oysters), vegetable components (spinach, herbs, beets) in the diet.
  • Abstinence from smoking and alcohol.
  • The fight against obesity.
  • Physical education.
  • Normalization of the water balance (you need to drink water as much as you want, and not 1.5-2 liters per day, as you can often hear).

As the above list shows, there is nothing complicated. This is a simple truth that any sane person must be aware of in order to maintain metabolic processes in a normal state. Take care of yourself and be healthy!

Testosterone Analysis

In a healthy male, the level of the steroid substance changes during the day, and in the morning its concentration is several times higher than in the daytime and at night. In addition, the season is also affected by the level of testosterone: in the fall, its volume increases. In the stronger sex, the synthesis of sex hormone is almost twenty times higher than in women. This is obvious, because its main function is to ensure the full functioning of the male reproductive system. A decrease or increase in hormonal levels has a negative effect on the well-being and sexual activity of a young person, and is also fraught with serious complications.

Check the level of testosterone in the blood is recommended when the following symptoms appear:

  • libido change
  • a sharp change of mood for no apparent reason,
  • erectile disfunction,
  • fragility of bones.

Doctors also recommend checking the level of hormones for women who do not have ovulation, have irregular periods, or increase hair growth on their body and / or face.

A few days before the delivery of laboratory tests, it is recommended to give up alcohol and smoking, as well as intense physical exertion. If the patient is taking any medications, you should inform your doctor.

Some medications affect the performance, so if possible, their use will need to be canceled 7 to 10 days before the test.

It is recommended to donate blood in the morning - from 8 to 11 in the morning. An analysis is given on an empty stomach, a few days before blood donation you can not overeat or take harmful, high-calorie foods.

Laboratory assistant takes blood from a vein in the serum of which testosterone levels are determined. Significant deviations from normal values ​​indicate the development of endocrine disorders in the patient.

Testosterone Circadian Rhythms

Testosterone production does not occur around the clock at the same level. The hormone has circadian rhythms (see Figure 2). It is synthesized around the clock in small quantities. The highest doses are released into the blood from 6 to 8 in the morning, when the minimum secretion is observed in the evening hours (from 20 to 22 pm).

Fig. 2 - Circadian and annual rhythms of testosterone:
chart 1 - the circadian rhythm of testosterone depending on the time of day,
chart 2 - circadian rhythm of testosterone depending on the time of year.

Androgen production

Despite the fact that this hormonal substance belongs to male hormones, it is also produced in the beautiful half of humanity. In this case, it is synthesized by the adrenal cortex and ovaries. If testosterone in women is produced in excess, then there will be a change in appearance, a masculine look and a failure of the female reproductive system with irregular menstruation.

The process of testosterone synthesis itself is influenced by many factors. For example, its production occurs when eating food with hot spices, during classes in the gym. Some scientists argue that the level of this hormone in a man rises when he talks to a representative of the opposite sex.

Now let's talk about where and how is testosterone produced in men? All sex hormones are produced in such endocrine glands as the testes (hormone-producing cells of the sex glands), testicles (they produce about 5-12 mg per day), and adrenal cortex. Their production is programmed and regulated by the pituitary and hypothalamus, which, in turn, receive a command from the brain.

How to determine how much testosterone is in the body? Laboratory diagnosis, involving the delivery of blood for analysis, will help to find out the exact value. The norm in women is 0.24-3.8 nmol / L. In men, the indicator is significantly higher: from 11 to 33 nmol / L.

Drug stimulation

It is possible to increase testosterone levels medically. To do this, you can use:

  • synthetic forms of sex hormone (this is already considered replacement therapy),
  • stimulants (most often these are biologically active additives).

Testosterone can be produced using stimulants. The most popular among them used in medical practice:

In fact, these are drugs that accelerate or provoke the course of biochemical processes with the breakdown of cholesterol, and at the same time make up for the lack of vitamins and minerals.

In total, testosterone is the main sex hormone in men, which is secreted by the ovaries and adrenal glands. He is responsible for the reproductive function, and also takes part in metabolism, an increase in the volume of bone, muscle, and connective tissues.

Over a dozen factors influence its production, but the main one is the man’s lifestyle and the normal functioning of the digestive tract. It is possible to increase testosterone production medically only by taking stimulants, or by introducing a synthetic form of the hormone intramuscularly and intravenously.

Lose weight

I already wrote that intra-abdominal adipose tissue is a hormonal organ (read “Fat on the stomach is more dangerous than fat on the hips”). It produces an enzyme called aromatase.This enzyme acts on testosterone so that it turns into the female sex hormone estradiol. Aromatase from abdominal fat enters the bloodstream and there turns the male hormone into female.

A man who began to recover gets into a vicious circle. Low testosterone lowers basal metabolic rate and contributes to weight gain; the resulting fat secretes aromatase and destroys testosterone. Read the sentence first. Therefore, to increase testosterone levels naturally, remove fat on your stomach.

The best approach is to lose no more than 100 g per day. Try not to diet or cut back on calorie intake dramatically. If the body goes on a hunger regimen, it stops producing testosterone.

In addition, it is difficult to maintain weight after rapid weight loss (read "How to maintain weight after losing weight").

A healthy way to maintain a healthy weight is with a well-balanced diet and regular exercise.

Low Testosterone - Quiet Killer

In men over 30 years of age, the natural secretion of the hormone begins to decline, and after this, fat appears on the abdomen, muscles leave and health deteriorates.

Low hormones are dangerous:

  • Metabolic disorders - diabetes, obesity and heart disease,
  • Deterioration of cognitive performance - memory impairment, mild cognitive impairment and the risk of developing disorders such as Alzheimer's
  • Increased risk of obesity and muscle loss,
  • Significantly higher risk of early death.

Testosterone levels

At first glance, it may seem that an increase in the level of male hormone will have a beneficial effect on the health of the male: more pronounced secondary sexual characteristics, increased sexual activity, etc. But not everything is so simple, because an increase in the hormonal background leads to the following consequences:

  1. An increase in red blood cells.
  2. Increased risk of cancer of the prostate gland.
  3. Oily skin, which contributes to the occurrence of acne, acne and other skin diseases.
  4. Increase the level of hair on the body, but bald patches on the head.
  5. Violation of the sperm production process, which, in turn, can lead to the development of infertility.
  6. Apnea at night, which is fraught with oxygen starvation.

It is not necessary to think that the representatives of the stronger sex, in whom testosterone is synthesized in a significant volume, look very attractive: tall, pumped-up handsome men with luxurious hair.

Patients who have increased hormonal levels, usually of short stature, with bald patches on their heads, but copious vegetation in other parts of the body. In addition, increased testosterone provokes excessive aggressiveness and short temper.

The causes of increased hormone production in men are as follows:

  • lack of globulin, which reduces the activity of testosterone,
  • various tumors and neoplasms in the testicles that enhance the functioning of Leydig cells,
  • XYY chromosome set,
  • enhanced synthesis of sex hormones by the adrenal glands, which is observed in men with adrenogenital syndrome,
  • therapy with certain drugs.

A significant increase in testosterone levels is an alarming signal that requires examination by an endocrinologist or other specialized specialists.

Forms (fractions) of testosterone

Testosterone received in the blood can be in 2 conditions:

Blood testosterone binds to various proteins. It can contact sex steroid binding globulin (SHGS) and albumin. This globulin is akin to all sex steroids, so not only testosterone, but also estrogens, estradiols and other sex hormones are exposed to its contact. The androgen associated with SHSC is quantitatively about 57%. It is no longer considered active, but only circulates in the blood.

The remaining 43% of the circulating hormone has biological activity. 40% of active testosterone is bound to albumin, and 3% are in free unbound form. The connection with albumin, unlike globulin, is very weak, and with any exposure it can weaken, and testosterone will break away from the protein.

Why is testosterone level falling?

By the age of 45, about 40% of men suffer from age-related hypogonadism, the so-called male menopause. And this is mainly due to low testosterone.

The production of this hormone is tightly controlled by two parts of the brain - the hypothalamus and the pituitary gland.

When its level in the body is lower than necessary, the hypothalamus sends a signal to the pituitary that it is necessary to increase the production of luteinizing hormone (LH, lutropin).

For this, the pituitary gland uses its own gonadotropin-releasing hormone. Almost a chemical blow to the brain.

The pituitary gland responds with a large amount of produced LH and sends it to the testes. More LH = more testosterone.

The interaction system of these three parts of the body is very sensitive. And if all its components work in unison, the hormonal background is in excellent condition.

If a failure occurs in one of the links of the hypothalamus chain - the pituitary - testicles, then the level of hormones falls below the optimal level.

A low level of male hormone can be associated with a lack of signals sent by the hypothalamus, problems with the release of LH, or directly with insufficient activity of the testicles.

But even worse ...

With age, in addition to the risk of lowering testosterone production, even the amount that still enters the bloodstream often becomes a victim of a protein called sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG).

This protein travels through the bloodstream in search of excess free testosterone to bind it - it turns off the hormone from the metabolism.

But gradually, SHBG is becoming more active. And this is just a disaster.

Production factors

Among the factors that influence the synthesis of the hormone, the main one is age. In adolescence, the hormone is produced in maximum quantities. At an older age, its synthesis gradually decreases, annually by 1%. Decrease in production is observed from 25-30 years.

Lifestyle also affects the amount of testosterone produced. The abuse of alcoholic beverages, an inactive lifestyle, smoking and obesity negatively affect the production of hormonal compounds. However, to accelerate the production of testosterone will allow a balanced diet, following the rules of healthy lifestyle.

A negative psycho-emotional environment and frequent stressful situations badly affect the synthesis of hormonal substances. This is because the stress hormone, cortisol, blocks the synthesis of testosterone.

The quantitative content of testosterone in the body depends on the time of day. Immediately after waking up, the percentage of testosterone is maximum, by the evening its decrease is observed, and before going to bed, the minimum value of this indicator is reached.

Proper physical activity and regular exercise leads to an increase in testosterone production, however, overwork and overstrain reduce the secretion of this hormone.

Where is testosterone produced, what factors affect its production

Testosterone is a steroid hormone that plays an important role in the reproductive system. Its production in the human body occurs in the gonads, adrenal glands and peripheral tissues.

The synthesis of the hormone is controlled by the pituitary gland, hypothalamus and central parts of the nervous system. Its level is also influenced by certain physiological and pathological conditions, lifestyle, diet and certain medications.

Cholesterol Testosterone Production Scheme

Testosterone refers to male sex hormones - androgens.Its main part (up to 95%) is synthesized in the sex glands - testicles. To a lesser extent, it is produced in the adrenal cortex and on the periphery - in the brain, adipose tissue.

The woman’s body also produces a certain amount of this hormone. At the same time, about 70% of testosterone is produced in peripheral tissues, and the rest - in the ovaries and adrenal glands.

The synthesis of the hormone comes from cholesterol. A larger amount of newly formed testosterone enters directly into the blood. There he binds to transport proteins - sex steroid-binding globulin (SHGS), and albumin. Only a small part of it is in a free state and is biologically active. A special daily rhythm of hormone secretion is observed with its maximum level at 6–8 in the morning and minimum at 18–20 in the evening.

Estradiol is synthesized from testosterone by the action of the aromatase enzyme in adipose tissue. In the liver, its metabolites are formed - androsterone and etiocholanolone, which are excreted in the urine. Under the action of 5-alpha reductase in the skin, liver and testicles, a more active androgen, dihydrotestosterone (DHT), is obtained from the hormone.

The biological role of testosterone is determined by its direct effect on the target organs, as well as the effects of its metabolites - estradiol and dihydrotestosterone.

The hormone performs the following functions:

  • responsible for the growth of the beard,
  • increases libido
  • promotes muscle development
  • stimulates the formation of red blood cells,
  • increases tissue sensitivity to insulin and glucose,
  • has a vasodilating effect,
  • increases the content of cholesterol and low density lipoproteins in the blood, reduces the fraction of their high density,
  • improves mood, aggressiveness, enhances motivation,
  • improves spatial orientation, mathematical abilities,
  • favorably affects short-term memory,
  • negatively affects the function of communication.

Dihydrotestosterone provides intrauterine formation of the male genital organs, hair growth in the armpits and pubis, causes baldness and stimulates the increase in size and development of the prostate gland. Estradiol, which is formed in men mainly from testosterone, maintains bone density, helps to close their growth areas, and regulates the secretion of gonadotropins. In women, he also participates in the formation of a regular menstrual cycle.

Exercise stress

Regular exercise helps increase testosterone levels in men. They also increase energy and stamina and help you sleep better.

In addition, they reduce the chances of gaining excess weight, which reduces male hormone.

Strength exercises that end with active aerobic workouts (or cardio training - running, swimming, basketball, tennis) are most effective for increasing testosterone levels and burning fat.

There is also a vicious circle, but useful. The more muscle, the higher testosterone, the higher testosterone, the more muscle. There is a prerequisite - to give the body the time needed to recover between workouts. Otherwise, exercise may have a negative effect on your male hormone levels.

What are natural supplements that increase testosterone production?

Natural supplements are created for those who want changes: to be more energetic, have a slimmer physique, high self-esteem and compete in bed with top pornstars.

Natural preparations for those who do not want to allow hormones to decide their fate. They do not have the side effects characteristic of steroids. On the contrary, they increase hormone levels naturally.

Created on the basis of completely natural ingredients, they do not increase its level directly, as synthetic steroids do.

Instead, they give an extra boost to the hypothalamus, pituitary gland and testicles to produce their own hormones. This method is more efficient and safer. There are no side effects and risks. Solid pluses.

Testosterone boosters work in three different directions:

  • Directly stimulate the testicles to produce more hormone,
  • Reduce the activity of SHBG,
  • Helps increase LH production.

How is testosterone produced?

The importance of androgens (male sex hormones) in the life of the stronger sex is very high, so it is important to know how and where testosterone is produced in men. Before you understand the question of where in the male body and how androgen is produced and testosterone, you need to study its properties.

It was found that the hormone affects the strengthening of the skeleton, sperm production, masculine strength, accelerated metabolism, and fat burning. The hormonal compound is responsible for the manifestation of male character traits, strengthening the walls of blood vessels, enhancing the immune defense of the male body and gaining muscle mass. It is this compound that affects the development of broad shoulders, the formation of narrow hips, muscle development, hair growth on the face, body.

Men with a low hormone level

How to find out which men almost never produce testosterone? In order to understand in time that you have a shortage of this hormone, you need to carefully monitor your health and immediately note any changes. Among the signs indicating a low level working out testosterone, experts distinguish:

  • Decrease in the area of ​​hair growth (armpits, inguinal region, legs, face, chest),
  • A sharp decrease in the body's immune defenses,
  • Body fat
  • Testicular density decrease
  • Osteoporosis,
  • Low libido
  • Sensitivity, femininity, softness,
  • Hypotone of the muscular skeleton and skin integument,
  • Depression, irritability, insomnia, tearfulness,
  • Prostration.

If you notice at home these above signs, it should be for several days consult a specialist and take a blood test. For 8 hours before the procedure, cigarettes should be discarded, physical activity should be canceled for 24 hours.

In addition to these symptoms, doctors recommend paying attention to the waist of a man. If your waist is less than 94 cm, then you have a high concentration of the hormone. A deficiency of this substance is indicated by a waist circumference of more than 102 cm. In the interval between these indicators are men with normal levels of testosterone production.

Increasing testosterone production in men

If you passed tests to determine the amount of this hormone and the endocrinologist did not notice serious violations, then you can increase testosterone in natural ways without using pharmaceuticals.

You can restore low testosterone in the body with the help of proper nutrition, maintaining a healthy lifestyle, playing sports. Consider each item in more detail.

Proper nutrition

To restore the synthesis of the hormone, it is necessary to establish a clear diet. To do this, take food in small portions 4-6 times a day, distributing it so that in the morning the body receives most of the calories.

On the other hand, carbonated drinks, excess sugar and salt, artificial smoked products, soybean, vegetable oil (with the exception of olive oil), caffeine, imported meat and products containing preservatives, dyes, and harmful food additives should be abandoned.

Which supplement or product will help restore testosterone production? It:

  • Foods high in calcium, zinc and selenium (cottage cheese, cheese, garlic, milk),
  • Natural dry red wine,
  • Spicy spices (garlic, curry, red pepper, cardamom),
  • Domestic meat
  • Healthy fats (tropical fruits, chicken yolk, olive oil, any nuts),
  • Fish, seafood,
  • Vitamins of groups A, B, D, C and E,
  • Carbohydrates
  • Acid L-Arginine,
  • Dietary supplements (ginseng, amino acid complex for men, omega-3 fatty acids, yohimbe, etc.),
  • Cabbage, because it contains diindolylmethane.

Healthy lifestyle

Why can men's health worsen? Much depends on a wrong and unhealthy lifestyle. If you give up bad habits (alcohol, smoking), prevent overheating of the testicles, fully get enough sleep, fight excess weight, have a regular sex life, observe the daily routine, and avoid stressful situations, you can normalize testosterone production over time.

In order for a man to increase testosterone produced in the body, to a normal level you need to choose a set of exercises for classes. Suitable options can be found independently on the Internet or consult with an instructor.

At first, power loads should be gentle, then a gradual increase is recommended. In order not to get the opposite effect, it is necessary to alternate loads and rest. In addition, it is important to prevent overvoltage.

Best Natural Supplements to Increase Testosterone Production

There is an old saying: "All that you need can be obtained from nature."

The best nutrients that trigger the production of testosterone can be found in nature - vitamins and minerals that are not necessarily found in food, but which can be isolated and used in the form of natural supplements, to improve health and increase your performance.

So, here is a list of the best natural supplements for testosterone:

D-Aspartic Acid (D-Aspartic acid or DAA)

DAA is one of the most effective nutrients in terms of gaining courageous muscles tearing a shirt to shreds.

This is an amino acid that helps both increase strength and muscle size, and increases the production of testosterone and growth hormone. D-aspartic acid is a nutrient for stimulating anabolic hormones.

DAA supplementation showed a 60% increase in testosterone over 90 days. Thanks to them, the content of lutropin and the number of seminal cells also increase.

So during love pleasures, not only the level of testosterone increases, but also the amount of sperm during orgasm - a one hundred percent way to impress a partner.

Vitamin D3

Also known as the “sunshine vitamin”, D3 comes into the body primarily from sunlight. But for those who do not live in a sunny climate, this source alone will not be enough.

This vitamin can also be obtained from food, but it is synthesized from it poorly and you will have to eat a whole ton of oily fish to get the amount necessary for hormones.

Almost every nutritionist recommends using D3 supplements. Not only because it helps reduce the risk of developing heart disease and metabolism, promotes muscle growth and reduces pain after training, but also because it significantly increases hormone levels.

Oyster Extract and Zinc

Perhaps, among the products that increase libido, the most popular are oysters. They are so effective in this matter that they are firmly rooted in sexual folklore.

But what is their secret? They are 78% zinc, which is why.

Studies have shown that supplements with zinc increase physical strength, performance and the level of sex hormone in both professional athletes and ordinary people.

The problem is that oysters are far from the most affordable food. In addition, not everyone likes the process of eating them.

Oyster extract is a great way to get all the benefits of these shellfish without taste and without hassle. A great alternative for those who do not like this salty taste of seafood, as well as for vegetarians, are dietary supplements with zinc.

Magnesium

This important mineral is often used for recovery and relaxation. Its long-term use increases mood and motivation, regulates the level of insulin in the blood and helps muscles recover after strength training.

Even a 4-week course of taking natural dietary supplements with magnesium significantly increases the level of testosterone in the body. It regulates all steroid hormones and gives them the necessary stimulus in order to restore their level.

9 ways to quickly and safely raise your testosterone level

Almost from the very beginnings of bodybuilding, testosterone is known as the most important factor, especially in bringing the body to the shape of a dream.

In fact, it is for this reason that steroids exist. However, they are known for their unpleasant side effects, including liver damage and gynecomastia (an increase in the mammary glands in men).

The good news is that there are natural ways to increase testosterone levels easily and safely.

So what needs to be done to achieve this? Well, we know the answer to this question.

1. Strength training

With a high degree of probability, many of our readers are already engaged in weights in the hall. However, it is worth checking your load volume and, in which case, heading for strength training.

Why do this? Because studies have shown that endurance training reduces testosterone production.

But do not be upset, since it is also proven that strength training for mass gain contributes to the increased production of growth hormone and testosterone in the body. Not bad, is it?

2. Reduce sugar intake

Let us turn for a second to the heroes and villains. If Batman were testosterone, then monosaccharides (simple sugar) would be a Joker.

What are simple sugars? Answer: these are sugars, which are found in abundance in sweet soda, sweets, cakes and other not super-healthy, but tasty products.

They contain many "empty" calories, with which they gladly fill the diet without contributing any nutritional value (for example, vitamins and minerals). As a rule, simple sugars significantly increase the likelihood of exceeding the daily amount of calories and increasing fat reserves in the body.

But this is not the worst: studies have shown that the consumption of large amounts of sugar directly causes a decrease in the release of male hormone.

Normal sleep

According to a study published in the journal of the American Medical Association, sleep reduction dramatically reduces testosterone levels in a healthy young person.

The study showed that the concentration of the hormone in young men who slept less than 5 hours a day for a week decreased by 10-15%.

In addition, lack of sleep increases the amount of cortisol (stress hormone), and it contributes to the collection of adipose tissue and lower testosterone

3. Eat More Healthy Fats

In the past, fats had a very poor reputation in society, but over time, people became wiser and now the attitude to fats is completely different.

Simply put, monounsaturated and saturated fats have already proven effective in boosting testosterone production in the body.

Therefore, instead of avoiding fats, you should include a few nuts, olive oil, avocados and coconut oil in your diet.

But let's forget about common sense - eating fried chicken and french fries daily will not do any good. You need to choose good fats, not cheap and harmful ones.

Avoid stress

High levels of emotional stress are associated with low testosterone in the blood, because, firstly, it affects sleep, and secondly, it increases the level of the stress hormone cortisol. I wrote about the effects of lack of sleep and cortisol on the male sex hormone above. Learn to manage stress before it begins to control your hormonal background.

4.Sleep for 7-8 hours

This is a very important aspect, in a century when the majority comes to work in the first place (everyone is in the pursuit of money), first of all, sleep time is reduced. Some even boast that they sleep little or hardly sleep at night.

However, if the goal is to raise your testosterone level, then you just need to start to go to bed early and sleep longer.

Why not do without it? Studies show that 7-8 hours of sleep is the optimal amount for a natural increase in testosterone levels. The same study recorded that in men who slept less than 5 hours, its level was lowered. What, the idea of ​​watching TV shows until the morning does not seem so good?

6. Lose weight

A high percentage of body fat can cause blockage of blood vessels, high cholesterol and other metabolic tricks that can disrupt the normal hormonal background in the body and reduce testosterone production.

In this light, the conclusion that losing weight is a great way to raise your testosterone level suggests itself.

Fortunately, if you use the very first tip from this article and train with heavy weights, the fat on the body will literally melt.

In addition to all of the above, training with weights is also characterized by excessive oxygen consumption after training, the so-called oxygen debt or the effect of EPOC (English excess postexercise oxygen consumption). In short, the body will continue to burn calories even after the load is completed. So we clean the diet and go, towards testosterone!

7. The hunt

And now, before vegetarians, vegans, animal advocates, and other activists get enraged, let's take a deep breath and calm down for a minute.

Not every hunt is good. The shooting of endangered species is certainly a vile affair and deserves to be condemned; at the same time, some species of commercial animals breed like crazy and control of their population is already necessary.

They eat almost everything they see, deer, for example, eat bird eggs and other small animals. So, before crying over Bambi, remember that he, too, is not sinless.

But back to the discussion of increasing testosterone levels. In 2013, an interesting study was conducted among the indigenous peoples of Bolivia living in the Amazon forests. It was found that every time after a successful hunt, they have a sharp increase in the level of testosterone and cortisol.

8. Limit beer

It is recommended to limit the use of alcoholic beverages, because they negatively affect the centers of the brain responsible for the formation of the male hormone, as a result of which the body starts the opposite process - the conversion of testosterone to estrogen.

Beer contains a large amount of plant estrogen. Thus, beer is an even greater enemy of male hormone than strong drinks.

9. Surround yourself with sexy women

Here, of course, something depends on heredity. Since, if nature was not very generous, the task may not be easy. Of course, for the lucky ones with the DNA of the Fair Prince, this is not a question at all, but are there many of them in life?

So, we are talking about the need to surround yourself with sexy women. Why is this? Well, in addition to the fact that a beautiful female body pleases the eye, its contemplation at the same time and increases the production of testosterone.

This is what scientists are telling us. Yeah, who would not want to be in the role of their experimental subject for such studies?

But even if your wife or passion is incredibly sexy, calming down isn't the best idea. This is not a well-known truth, but loyal love relationships can lower testosterone levels by 21%!

So try on the role of an alpha male, and leave the romance to the frail beta.

Testosterone Booster Complex

As mentioned earlier, a strength training program can trigger an increase in testosterone levels.

For beginners: The following is a training option for quickly starting testosterone growth. And those who came to strength training with weights primarily for a specific purpose, with this complex are most likely to achieve noticeable results.

It consists of complex lifts - it is widely known that it is these exercises that make the body secrete more testosterone. Complex lifts with large weights will literally pump your body into it! Forget about the usual 6-day split as a nightmare.

Make sure you give yourself enough rest between sets. Since, if the exercises are not performed at full strength, the production of testosterone will not come to the optimal state.

Here is the complex itself:

  • Bench press - 3 circles of 5-6 repetitions,
  • Push rod - 3-6 laps of 5 repetitions,
  • Squat - 3 circles of 5-6 repetitions,
  • Army bench press - 3 circles of 5-6 repetitions,
  • Deadlift - 3 laps of 5-6 repetitions.

Decreased Steroid Hormone

With age, the level of testosterone in the male body drops, and this is a variant of the norm. But if a testosterone deficiency is observed in a young man, then you need to consult an endocrinologist and undergo a detailed examination.

Hormone deficiency can cause the following symptoms:

  1. Erectile dysfunction, rejection of intimacy.
  2. A decrease in muscle mass, which causes thinness and weakness in the body.
  3. Partial or complete disappearance of secondary sexual characteristics.
  4. Decreased body tone, which is fraught with a breakdown, chronic fatigue and depression.
  5. Decreased metabolic rate, which is fraught with obesity and the formation of a effeminate figure (chest, buttocks, etc.).
  6. The bones become brittle and the skin sagging.
  7. Decreased mental activity.

Pathology in the stronger sex, characterized by a decrease in testosterone levels, is called hypotestosteronemia. The disease can be either congenital or acquired.

The reasons that slow down the production of testosterone are as follows:

  1. Alcohol abuse. Alcohol slows down the synthesis of the hormone, and beer even contains an artificial analogue of female hormones.
  2. Increased pituitary production of prolactins observed with hyperprolactinemia.
  3. Taking steroid drugs.
  4. Diseases of the prostate gland.
  5. Pathologies of the adrenal glands that interfere with their functioning.
  6. A strict diet in which a man’s body lacks carbohydrates.
  7. Sedentary work, sedentary lifestyle.

In addition, free testosterone is poorly synthesized in the body of a man with the development of some chronic diseases: AIDS, tuberculosis, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, etc.

Therefore, in order to determine the root cause of hormonal imbalance, you need to undergo a full examination by a doctor. Raising testosterone levels on your own is dangerous and fraught with serious consequences.

Normalization of the hormonal background

Depending on the results of tests showing a change in the level of testosterone in the blood, the doctor determines the further tactics of therapy. If no serious abnormalities have been identified, and the deviation of the hormone from normal values ​​is insignificant, it is enough to limit ourselves to lifestyle changes and nutritional adjustments.

Sleep normalization

The main volume of testosterone in the body of a man is formed in the early morning, so if a representative of the stronger sex does not sleep well and gets up too early, then his body simply does not have time to synthesize the required amount of hormones. All drugs prescribed by an endocrinologist to increase testosterone levels will not bring the expected effect if the patient sleeps less than 7-8 hours a day.

Some men fully get enough sleep and in six hours - it all depends on the individual characteristics of the body.The main thing is for the male to wake up alert and completely rested.

To normalize the quality of sleep, experts recommend:

  • ventilate the bedroom well and sleep in the warm season with an open window,
  • abandon the warm blanket
  • wear thin underwear at night so as not to overheat the testicles,
  • do not overeat before bedtime, as well as give up smoking and alcohol.

Nutrition change

Food contains a huge supply of stimulants that “push” our body to produce the necessary hormones.

These foods include:

  1. Seafood rich in protein and vitamins. Shrimps and crabs are especially beneficial for the male body.
  2. Greens, fruits and vegetables not only nourish our body with the necessary trace elements and vitamins, but also neutralize the toxins that enter it along with junk food.
  3. Spicy spices that stimulate the body to process estrogen, as well as its excretion.
  4. A variety of cereals containing fiber. Fiber increases blood circulation in the pelvis, which contributes to the production of testosterone by the testes.

Doing sports

Exercise is a great way to normalize testosterone levels in the male body. But sports should be moderate, as severe fatigue can cause the opposite result.

The optimal mode of sports is no more than three times a week. Moreover, one lesson should not exceed 60 minutes. Take a quarter of an hour to warm up, and then you can begin to do more difficult exercises.

Refusal of addictions

Since alcohol abuse and tobacco smoking negatively affect the body's production of testosterone, bad habits must be completely abandoned or minimized.

During the treatment of hormonal failure, it is important to completely abandon alcohol, even low-alcohol ones.

Hormone treatment

If a change in diet and lifestyle adjustment do not give the expected result, then the endocrinologist can prescribe a drug treatment to the patient, including hormone replacement drugs.

Medicines, which include exogenous testosterone, are prescribed to patients very rarely, and the dosage of drugs is calculated based on the results of the analyzes, the individual characteristics of the patient's body and associated pathologies. As a result of therapy with an exogenous steroid drug, the level of hormones in the body is normalized in the patient, since the synthesis of natural testosterone is restored.

Testosterone in the female body

In the female body, testosterone is produced by the adrenal glands and ovaries. But among the fair sex, its blood content is ten times lower than that of men. With normal indicators of the hormonal background, a woman should not notice secondary sexual characteristics characteristic of the stronger sex.

In the body of girls and women, the steroid hormone helps to fully develop:

Testosterone promotes the growth of muscle tissue and gives strength, and also normalizes blood sugar levels. In addition, testosterone increases sexual activity and inhibits the development of cardiovascular pathologies. A good metabolism in the body is also directly related to this hormone.

The representative of the fair sex by its nature should be beautiful and sexy, and this level is affected by its hormonal level.

The level of testosterone in the body of women and men is determined primarily by genetics: each of us has his own level of hormonal levels, so we differ in character, temperament, behavior and appearance.

Hormones play an important role in the functioning of our body, and the most important thing in this matter is stability and harmony in everything.Any violations of the synthesis of testosterone and other hormones lead to the fact that a person begins to develop endocrine pathologies of varying severity. In order to maintain their health, well-being and appearance are normal, representatives of the stronger sex should control their hormonal background and know how to improve the situation until the violations have caused serious consequences.

Eat healthy fats

Just like vitamins and other beneficial substances, your body requires healthy fats for optimal functioning.

Biochemical studies have shown that a diet with less than 40% energy in the form of fat leads to a decrease in testosterone levels.

We are talking about omega-3 fatty acids that are found in fish in cold seas (herring, sardines, mackerel, salmon), egg yolks, nuts, olives, olive oil, avocados.

Monounsaturated fatty acids have a direct effect on your testosterone levels. Peanuts, almonds, pistachios, hazelnuts, olives, avocados, palm, olive and canola oils contain this type of fat.

Optimize Vitamin D

People with low testosterone often have a vitamin D deficiency.

Healthy overweight men who participated in the weight loss program had increased testosterone levels after taking vitamin D every day for a year.

15 minutes in the sun is the best way to optimize the concentration of this vitamin. In addition, there are foods that are rich in them - fatty fish, caviar, liver, egg yolk, fatty dairy foods.

Consume the right amount of zinc

Mineral zinc is essential for the production of testosterone and a deficiency can lead to a decrease in the hormone in the blood. A healthy diet is the best way to increase your zinc intake. This trace element contains foods such as red meat, fish, milk, cheese, beans, pumpkin seeds, nuts, yogurt, kefir.

If you decide to use dietary supplements of zinc, a dosage of 40 mg per day is the upper limit for adults. The recommended norm for an adult is 11 mg per day. Too much zinc intake can affect the body’s ability to absorb other minerals, especially copper. With food sorted out, now about the popular drink.

Cut down on alcohol

Excessive alcohol consumption has a direct effect on key hormones, including testosterone. To maintain a healthy amount, keep an eye on how much you drink.

Men should not receive more than 3-4 alcohol units per day (1 AU equals 10 ml of alcohol). One unit of alcohol is contained in 100 ml of dry wine, 70 ml of fortified wine and 30 ml of vodka or cognac.

At least two days a week should be non-alcoholic.

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Testosterone secretion and its regulation

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Where is testosterone produced?

The main source of testosterone in the body is the testes. In this body, testosterone (5-12 mg / day) and a small amount of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHA), androstenedione and estrogens are produced directly.

Although all testicle tissues are capable of producing testosterone, Leydig cells are the main producer. The tubular epithelium of the testis and adrenal glands are also capable of producing this hormone.

They produce DHA, which through a chain of reactions turns into testosterone. But this fraction makes a very small contribution to the main pool of androgens (see

more details “The role of the adrenal androgens in the male body”).

Any hormone, any enzyme and secret is synthesized from a certain substance that enters our body with food. The basis of testosterone is cholesterol.

Leydig cells take cholesterol from the blood as acetate or low density lipoproteins. A certain sequence of reactions occurs with the conversion of substances: cholesterol → pregnenolone → 17-hydroxypregnenolone → androstenediol.

After chemical reactions, 2 androstenediol molecules are connected to each other and the final product → testosterone is released.

Hypothalamic-pituitary system

The normal constant level of the hormone in the blood is controlled hypothalamic-pituitary system. This works on the principle of negative feedback. The hypothalamus produces gonadotropin-releasing hormone, which, in turn, controls the constant secretion of gonadotropins by the pituitary gland (follicle-stimulating and luteinizing hormones).

Luteinizing hormone (LH) controls the maturation of Leydig cells and their further production of steroid hormones. That is, it plays a major role in triggering testosterone synthesis in the testes. Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) monitors the complete maturation of spermatogenic epithelium and enhances the affinity for LH (by increasing the number of receptors for LH).

The principle of feedback is that testicular cells signal the hypothalamus about the amount of hormones produced. Notification is carried out using receptors akin to testosterone on the hypothalamus.

If hormones are in normal amounts, then the pituitary gland continues to produce the same amount of gonadotropins as before.

If testosterone is more than necessary, less of the latter enters the blood; if less than necessary, it is more.

Testosterone Circadian Rhythms

Testosterone production does not occur around the clock at the same level. The hormone has circadian rhythms (see Figure 2). It is synthesized around the clock in small quantities. The highest doses are released into the blood from 6 to 8 in the morning, when the minimum secretion is observed in the evening hours (from 20 to 22 pm).

  • Fig. 2 - Circadian and annual rhythms of testosterone:
    chart 1 - the circadian rhythm of testosterone depending on the time of day,
  • chart 2 - circadian rhythm of testosterone depending on the time of year.

Testosterone metabolism in the body of a man

Forms (fractions) of testosterone

Testosterone received in the blood can be in 2 conditions:

Blood testosterone binds to various proteins. It can contact sex steroid binding globulin (SHGS) and albumin.

This globulin is akin to all sex steroids, so not only testosterone, but also estrogens, estradiols and other sex hormones are exposed to its contact.

The androgen associated with SHSC is quantitatively about 57%. It is no longer considered active, but only circulates in the blood.

The remaining 43% of the circulating hormone has biological activity. 40% of active testosterone is bound to albumin, and 3% are in free unbound form. The connection with albumin, unlike globulin, is very weak, and with any exposure it can weaken, and testosterone will break away from the protein.

The role of SHBG in the hormonal background

The concentration of GPS can increase in the blood under various conditions:

  • ingestion of glucocorticoids orally or parenterally,
  • protein deficiency
  • hypothyroidism
  • obesity.

If the concentration of GPSS increases, the ratio of active testosterone to estrogen will be less. In this case, the estrogen in a man will become the main ones, which will negatively affect the direct functions of testosterone.

Physiologically, SHSC increases with age. Redistribution after 40 years can lead to 2 opposite conditions:

  1. Or estrogen will begin to prevail, which will affect the general condition of the body by gynecomastia, obesity according to the female type (fat deposition on the hips, legs and stomach), a change in mood to a more whining.
  2. If the body takes a different path, then increasing the concentration of SHGS will ensure the normal content of total testosterone in the blood and long-term maintenance of its level while reducing the quantitative indicators of free testosterone.

3 ways testosterone metabolism

There are 3 ways of metabolism in relation to biologically active testosterone:

  1. Enhanced biological activity - after combining with 5α-reductase, testosterone turns into a more active hormonal unit - dihydrotestosterone (this occurs in the prostate gland, skin, epididymis, seminal vesicles),
  2. Change in biological activity - under the influence of aromatase, the hormone turns into estradiol (this occurs in the brain, muscles, adipose tissue, mammary gland),
  3. Decrease in biological activity - when testosterone enters the liver, 5β-reductase converts the hormone into inactive 5β-dihydrotestosterone and its derivatives sulfates and glucuronides.

Fig. 3 - Change in the activity of testosterone as a result of metabolic transformations (the androgenic activity of each of the steroids is indicated in parentheses, the activity of testosterone is taken as 100).

Hormone half-life

The hormone circulation is short, and the half-life occurs in 2 stages.

  • Stage 1 - proceeds in 20 minutes. During this time, almost the entire amount of active testosterone is utilized from the blood. It is absorbed by tissues metabolized by a sex steroid.
  • Stage 2 - lasts up to 3 hours. A large amount of the hormone is absorbed by adipose tissue, where a kind of depot of sex hormones is located. The remaining amount of the hormone in the blood is utilized by various metabolites through the kidneys and liver.

Almost half of the secreted testosterone is excreted in the urine by metabolites: androsterone, etiocholanolone. These metabolites represent a separate group of 17-ketosteroids. Testosterone is also excreted as inactivated testosterone - glucuronide.

Testosterone effects

It is not for nothing that testosterone is called the “hormone of kings - the king of hormones”. After all, he controls almost all the functions in the male body. The hormone can do this directly - directly penetrating the cell nucleus, or indirectly - controlling the work of other hormones.

Testosterone in the male body performs the basic classical functions:

  • Androgenic function - testosterone provides the manifestation of secondary sexual characteristics of men. Due to the high content of testosterone prevailing over estrogens, male-type hair growth occurs (hairiness on the face, chest, buttocks and genitals). The growth and development of male genital gonads and the external genital organs, body build according to the male type (distribution of adipose tissue) is ensured. Bald patches and baldness also control testosterone. Interestingly, body fat is also controlled by testosterone. If in women obesity is superficial due to subcutaneous fat, in men, fat is deposited in the parenchymal organs and in the greater omentum.
  • Anabolic function - a sex steroid provides the growth of muscle fibers, the necessary density of bone tissue, takes part in the production of the necessary organ-specific proteins in the kidneys, liver, sweat and sebaceous glands.
  • Antigonadotropic function - high testosterone inhibits gonadotropins. The general principles of implicit feedback between the gonads and the hypothalamic-pituitary system are followed.
  • Reproductive function - without the necessary amount of testosterone, sperm formation is impossible. The hormone is the "motor lever" of spermatogenesis.It also provides erectile function and sex drive.
  • Psychophysiological function - due to the male sex steroid, stereotyped behavior, some character traits are formed. It is testosterone that provides the necessary libido, increased aggression in behavior, the desire to fight, the dying of feelings of fear. The hormone has a psychostimulating effect.
  • Hematopoietic function - indirectly affects hematopoiesis. Testosterone can affect erythropoiesis in the red bone marrow, enhancing it. It also has an effect on the production of erythropoietin in the kidneys. The ratio of erythropoietin to testosterone works on the principle of a direct positive relationship - the more testosterone, the more erythropoietin is produced.

I.I. Dedov, S. Yu. Kalinchenko, “Age-related androgen deficiency in men”, Moscow, 2006.

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Where is testosterone produced, what factors affect its production

Male sex hormones

Testosterone is a steroid hormone that plays an important role in the reproductive system. Its production in the human body occurs in the gonads, adrenal glands and peripheral tissues.

The synthesis of the hormone is controlled by the pituitary gland, hypothalamus and central parts of the nervous system. Its level is also influenced by certain physiological and pathological conditions, lifestyle, diet and certain medications.

Cholesterol Testosterone Production Scheme

Testosterone refers to male sex hormones - androgens. Its main part (up to 95%) is synthesized in the sex glands - testicles. To a lesser extent, it is produced in the adrenal cortex and on the periphery - in the brain, adipose tissue.

The woman’s body also produces a certain amount of this hormone. At the same time, about 70% of testosterone is produced in peripheral tissues, and the rest - in the ovaries and adrenal glands.

The synthesis of the hormone comes from cholesterol. A larger amount of newly formed testosterone enters directly into the blood.

There he binds to transport proteins - sex steroid-binding globulin (SHGS), and albumin. Only a small part of it is in a free state and is biologically active.

A special daily rhythm of hormone secretion is observed with its maximum level at 6–8 in the morning and minimum at 18–20 in the evening.

Estradiol is synthesized from testosterone by the action of the aromatase enzyme in adipose tissue. In the liver, its metabolites are formed - androsterone and etiocholanolone, which are excreted in the urine. Under the action of 5-alpha reductase in the skin, liver and testicles, a more active androgen, dihydrotestosterone (DHT), is obtained from the hormone.

The biological role of testosterone is determined by its direct effect on the target organs, as well as the effects of its metabolites - estradiol and dihydrotestosterone.

The hormone performs the following functions:

  • responsible for the growth of the beard,
  • increases libido
  • promotes muscle development
  • stimulates the formation of red blood cells,
  • increases tissue sensitivity to insulin and glucose,
  • has a vasodilating effect,
  • increases the content of cholesterol and low density lipoproteins in the blood, reduces the fraction of their high density,
  • improves mood, aggressiveness, enhances motivation,
  • improves spatial orientation, mathematical abilities,
  • favorably affects short-term memory,
  • negatively affects the function of communication.

Dihydrotestosterone provides intrauterine formation of the male genital organs, hair growth in the armpits and pubis, causes baldness and stimulates the increase in size and development of the prostate gland.

Estradiol, which is formed in men mainly from testosterone, maintains bone density, helps to close their growth areas, and regulates the secretion of gonadotropins.

In women, he also participates in the formation of a regular menstrual cycle.

Regulation of testosterone synthesis

The production of androgens is regulated by the pituitary gonadotropins - luteinizing (LH) and follicle-stimulating (FSH) hormones. The synthesis of testosterone in testicles occurs in Leydig cells under the control of LH. FSH binds to Sertoli cell receptors and triggers spermatogenesis. In women, gonadotropins stimulate the production of sex hormones and are involved in the formation of the menstrual cycle.

The level of LH and FSH depends on the gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) of the hypothalamus. Its excretion into the circulatory system is pulsating with peaks every 90-120 minutes.

Its secretion lowers the pituitary gonadotropin concentration with a high frequency, and stimulates the production of FSH and, to a lesser extent, LH with a low frequency. GnRH synthesis regulates the concentrations of testosterone, estradiol, dihydrotestosterone, as well as blood levels of leptin, activin, prolactin and inhibin.

Their increase inhibits the secretion of releasing hormone. LH and FSH and testosterone are released into the bloodstream with the same rhythm as releasing hormone.

The synthesis of androgens in the adrenal glands is controlled by corticotropin (ACTH), produced in the pituitary gland, and hypothalamus corticoliberin.

The highest link in the regulation of the reproductive system is the brain. It produces biological substances that have a stimulating and inhibitory effect on the reproductive function. The midbrain contains biogenic amines, norepinephrine, serotonin and other neurogenic mediators that act on the hypothalamus.

Testosterone changes with age

The production of the hormone begins at 9 weeks of fetal development. Under the influence of dihydrotestosterone formed from it, external genitalia are formed in boys.

After birth, the level of testosterone in male infants decreases and only slightly exceeds that in female children.

Shortly before puberty, GnRH secretion increases, especially in the morning, which is accompanied by an increase in the production of LH, FSH and testosterone.

The production of adrenal androgens under the influence of ACTH increases from 6–7 years. Under their action, armpit and pubic hair begin to grow, and a growth spurt occurs. This period is called adrenarch; in boys it begins 2 years later than in girls.

Testosterone production: features of the synthesis of male hormone

The synthesis of testosterone in the human body is necessary for the functioning of the reproductive system of both men and women.

The production of testosterone in men occurs mainly in the gonads (testicles). In a smaller amount, the hormone is synthesized by adrenal cells.

Testosterone is the main male sex hormone, and its functions are supplemented by androstenediol and dehydroepiandrosterone.

In the male body, female sex hormones (estrogens) are also synthesized. A small amount of them is produced in the adrenal cortex and in the testicles. Estrogens support the strength of the bone apparatus, provide an adequate growth distribution of adipose tissue. These biologically active compounds reduce the risk of cardiovascular catastrophes.

In the female body, testosterone is produced in much smaller quantities than in men. It is produced by cells of the adrenal cortex and in the ovaries.

The level of this hormonal compound determines how well a woman’s muscular system will be developed, and the firmness and elasticity of muscle fibers.

An imbalance of testosterone in men and women negatively affects the metabolic processes of the whole body.

Hypothalamic-pituitary system

Testosterone affects not only the reproductive organs, but is also part of a complex regulatory system, the center of which is located in the brain. Schematically, this system can be represented as follows:

  • the main regulatory center is the hypothalamus and pituitary gland (brain structures),
  • sex hormone producers - testicles in men and ovaries in women,
  • target cells (almost any organ of the human body is affected by hormones).

The hypothalamus produces its own hormone - GLH or gonadotropin releasing factor. Its amount in the human body is small, and the impact is huge. The biologically active substance contributes to the proper development of gastric juice in accordance with the intake of food, causes changes in glomerular filtration depending on external and internal conditions, the alternation of phases of fast and slow sleep.

HLH affects the reproductive sphere, as it is able to stimulate the synthesis of FSH (follicle-stimulating) and LHH (luteinizing) hormones.

LSH and FSH are formed in the cells of the pituitary gland - the second controlling structure. These active compounds directly stimulate the formation of sex hormones in the female and male body. FSH affects the production of sperm in the testes (Sertolly cells), in women it contributes to the proper maturation of follicles inside the ovaries.

LSH has the opposite effect. The hormone stimulates the onset of ovulation, is necessary for the formation of the corpus luteum of the ovaries, and in men it controls the synthesis of testosterone.

The listed structures and their hormones determine the amount and the correct ratio of male and female sex hormones, the implementation of their biological functions.

Violation of any link leads to a change in the whole system, since the feedback principle applies. A high concentration of sex hormones can stimulate the formation of lesser amounts of LSH and FSH, and vice versa.

Stimulation of testosterone production is noted at a low concentration of FSH and LSH.

Testosterone secretion and its regulation

In men, testosterone is produced in specific Leydig cells in the testes, to a lesser extent by the cells of the tubular epithelium and adrenal cortex. The starting substrate for this is cholesterol.

It is subsequently transformed first into pregnenolone, then into dehydroepiandrosterone, and finally into androstenedione. The final product, testosterone, is formed by combining two androstenedione molecules.

Violation of this biochemical chain is observed with steroid deficiency, since there is no physiological depot of these compounds in the human body.

At the next stage, the testosterone molecule is transformed into a more active metabolite - dihydrotestosterone. Recovery occurs under the influence of a specific enzyme - 5a-reductase.

This enzyme is found in the tissues of the brain, liver, skin, prostate gland and epididymis.

The interaction of target cell receptors and further biological effects are due to the action of dihydrotestosterone.

The restoration of dihydrotestosterone to a less active metabolite of 17-ketocorticosteroid completes the active stage of biochemical transformations, the substance is excreted from the body with urine. A part of androgen metabolites undergoes biological transformation in the liver - it combines with glucuronic acid and is also excreted in the urine.

The active substance of dihydrotestosterone is formed in other ways - it is synthesized without transformation from testosterone by testicular cells.

In liver diseases, the biotransformation of testosterone occurs in other ways: androgens are converted to estrogens (estrone and estradiol).

This is manifested by the corresponding clinical signs: a change in figure, a violation of sexual function and infertility.

It is difficult to improve the situation with such biochemical disorders, since drugs that directly affect these biochemical reactions have not been developed.

The role of SHBG in the hormonal background

The concentration of GPS can increase in the blood under various conditions:

  • ingestion of glucocorticoids orally or parenterally,
  • protein deficiency
  • hypothyroidism
  • obesity.

If the concentration of GPSS increases, the ratio of active testosterone to estrogen will be less. In this case, the estrogen in a man will become the main ones, which will negatively affect the direct functions of testosterone.

Physiologically, SHSC increases with age. Redistribution after 40 years can lead to 2 opposite conditions:

  1. Or estrogen will begin to prevail, which will affect the general condition of the body by gynecomastia, obesity according to the female type (fat deposition on the hips, legs and stomach), a change in mood to a more whining.
  2. If the body takes a different path, then increasing the concentration of SHGS will ensure the normal content of total testosterone in the blood and long-term maintenance of its level while reducing the quantitative indicators of free testosterone.

3 ways testosterone metabolism

There are 3 ways of metabolism in relation to biologically active testosterone:

  1. Enhanced biological activity - after combining with 5α-reductase, testosterone turns into a more active hormonal unit - dihydrotestosterone (this occurs in the prostate gland, skin, epididymis, seminal vesicles),
  2. Change in biological activity - under the influence of aromatase, the hormone turns into estradiol (this occurs in the brain, muscles, adipose tissue, mammary gland),
  3. Decrease in biological activity - when testosterone enters the liver, 5β-reductase converts the hormone into inactive 5β-dihydrotestosterone and its derivatives sulfates and glucuronides.

Fig. 3 - Change in the activity of testosterone as a result of metabolic transformations (the androgenic activity of each of the steroids is indicated in parentheses, the activity of testosterone is taken as 100).

Hormone half-life

The hormone circulation is short, and the half-life occurs in 2 stages.

  • Stage 1 - proceeds in 20 minutes. During this time, almost the entire amount of active testosterone is utilized from the blood. It is absorbed by tissues metabolized by a sex steroid.
  • Stage 2 - lasts up to 3 hours. A large amount of the hormone is absorbed by adipose tissue, where a kind of depot of sex hormones is located. The remaining amount of the hormone in the blood is utilized by various metabolites through the kidneys and liver.

Almost half of the secreted testosterone is excreted in the urine by metabolites: androsterone, etiocholanolone. These metabolites represent a separate group of 17-ketosteroids. Testosterone is also excreted as inactivated testosterone - glucuronide.

Testosterone effects

It is not for nothing that testosterone is called the “hormone of kings - the king of hormones”. After all, he controls almost all the functions in the male body. The hormone can do this directly - directly penetrating the cell nucleus, or indirectly - controlling the work of other hormones.

Testosterone in the male body performs the basic classical functions:

  • Androgenic function - testosterone provides the manifestation of secondary sexual characteristics of men. Due to the high content of testosterone prevailing over estrogens, male-type hair growth occurs (hairiness on the face, chest, buttocks and genitals). The growth and development of male genital gonads and the external genital organs, body build according to the male type (distribution of adipose tissue) is ensured. Bald patches and baldness also control testosterone. Interestingly, body fat is also controlled by testosterone.If in women obesity is superficial due to subcutaneous fat, in men, fat is deposited in the parenchymal organs and in the greater omentum.
  • Anabolic function - a sex steroid provides the growth of muscle fibers, the necessary density of bone tissue, takes part in the production of the necessary organ-specific proteins in the kidneys, liver, sweat and sebaceous glands.
  • Antigonadotropic function - high testosterone inhibits gonadotropins. The general principles of implicit feedback between the gonads and the hypothalamic-pituitary system are followed.
  • Reproductive function - without the necessary amount of testosterone, sperm formation is impossible. The hormone is the "motor lever" of spermatogenesis. It also provides erectile function and sex drive.
  • Psychophysiological function - due to the male sex steroid, stereotyped behavior, some character traits are formed. It is testosterone that provides the necessary libido, increased aggression in behavior, the desire to fight, the dying of feelings of fear. The hormone has a psychostimulating effect.
  • Hematopoietic function - indirectly affects hematopoiesis. Testosterone can affect erythropoiesis in the red bone marrow, enhancing it. It also has an effect on the production of erythropoietin in the kidneys. The ratio of erythropoietin to testosterone works on the principle of a direct positive relationship - the more testosterone, the more erythropoietin is produced.

I.I. Dedov, S. Yu. Kalinchenko, “Age-related androgen deficiency in men”, Moscow, 2006.

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Testosterone production: features of the synthesis of male hormone

The synthesis of testosterone in the human body is necessary for the functioning of the reproductive system of both men and women.

The production of testosterone in men occurs mainly in the gonads (testicles). In a smaller amount, the hormone is synthesized by adrenal cells.

Testosterone is the main male sex hormone, and its functions are supplemented by androstenediol and dehydroepiandrosterone.

In the male body, female sex hormones (estrogens) are also synthesized. A small amount of them is produced in the adrenal cortex and in the testicles. Estrogens support the strength of the bone apparatus, provide an adequate growth distribution of adipose tissue. These biologically active compounds reduce the risk of cardiovascular catastrophes.

In the female body, testosterone is produced in much smaller quantities than in men. It is produced by cells of the adrenal cortex and in the ovaries.

The level of this hormonal compound determines how well a woman’s muscular system will be developed, and the firmness and elasticity of muscle fibers.

An imbalance of testosterone in men and women negatively affects the metabolic processes of the whole body.

Testosterone metabolism in men

Several types of testosterone circulate in the blood of a man. They differ in the degree of biochemical activity, the ability to enhance or slow down certain processes in the human body. Several fractions of testosterone are isolated.

Associated (also conjugated) with the transport protein globulin. Its percentage is 56-57%. The substance does not have any biological activity, since a strong bond prevents its penetration into the cell.

Free, that is, testosterone unrelated to other molecules, has maximum biological activity. Its content in the blood is small - 3-4%.

Testosterone bound to another protein (albumin). Its percentage is about 40%. The substance is a biologically available (active) variant of androgen.

Now there is new information on the biochemical activity of various fractions of testosterone. There is an opinion that testosterone associated with globulin may be involved in certain reactions.

It interacts with specific receptors on the surface of liver cells, which simultaneously reduces the level of the hormone in the blood and stimulates its synthesis.

As a result, the reaction leads to the normalization of testosterone content.

The biochemical transformation of testosterone is carried out by the aromatase enzyme. It stimulates the subsequent conversion into the female hormone estradiol.

This female sex hormone is necessary for a man only in small quantities to maintain balance. Excess estradiol leads to the formation of secondary female sexual characteristics in men.

A decrease in the biological activity of testosterone occurs when it breaks down into inactive metabolites (17-ketocorticosteroid and others). These substances do not affect potency and male reproductive function.

Enhanced biological activity is the biotransformation of testosterone to dihydrotestosterone. The activity of this compound is 2.5 times higher than that of testosterone itself. By such a transformation, one can make the body activate “male functions”.

Testosterone Properties

The biochemical details regarding testosterone are of interest to those skilled in the art.

An ordinary person is more interested in the biological properties of the hormone, how it changes with physical exertion, taking a certain medication and against the background of diseases of the male genital area (varicocele, prostatic hypertrophy). Often there are questions about the effect of alcohol, diet, sports training on the concentration of testosterone.

Among the possible biological effects of testosterone, the most significant are:

  • the formation of the musculoskeletal system according to the "male type" as the child grows during physical exertion,
  • maintaining sexual desire and sexual activity,
  • the development of secondary sexual characteristics in a growing boy (hair on the face, groin, axillary zone, low timbre of the voice),
  • providing an erection, ejaculation, that is, reproductive function.

Many athletes practice taking special dietary supplements. This contributes to the production of testosterone, provides a rapid increase in muscle mass. Weight in this case does not change significantly.

But it is important to observe the duration and frequency of daily intake, since any medication has possible side effects. Regular exercise, vitamins and proper nutrition have a slow, but longer lasting effect than supplements and artificial synthesis drugs.

What makes testosterone in men

Testosterone- sex hormone that is produced in the male and female body.

But still in the stronger sex, this hormone is produced in a much larger volume, it is thanks to testosterone that men are characterized by characteristic features: an abundance of hair on the face and body, the development of specific sex glands, a low voice, rougher features, a special manner of behavior.

Note! Testosterone is responsible for the formation and functioning of the male reproductive system, determines libido and sexual activity.

Male sex hormone testosterone

Testosterone - a hormone secreted in the male body by the testes (testicles) and adrenal glandsperforming a lot of various functions in the body. The main one is the stimulation of the development of the reproductive system in the puberty and the regulation of spermatogenesis in reproductive age.

Normally, the volume of testosterone in a man’s body ranges from 12.5 to 40.6 nmol / l, with such indicators he successfully performs the main tasks:

  • provides full development of the male reproductive system (penis, testicles, prostate gland),
  • stimulates the manifestation of secondary sexual characteristics (hair growth on the face and body)
  • participates in the synthesis of protein in muscle tissues, leading to muscle enlargement,
  • helps to fight the accumulation of fat in the abdominal cavity, distributing it evenly throughout the body and lowering cholesterol,
  • affects the formation of a low tone of voice,
  • controls blood circulation, improving it, thereby ensuring a healthy erection,
  • affects the brain, forming a sex drive,
  • regulates the psychophysiological functioning of men (forms stereotypical male character traits and behavior).

Although testosterone synthesis occurs around the clock, production is not always kept at the same level - at 6-8 a.m. the hormone's release into the bloodstream is maximum, at 20-22 a.m.

Where and how is testosterone produced

  • The main production processes of male steroid hormone occur in the testicleswhere testosterone itself is produced (approximately 5-12 mg / day), as well as dehydroepiandrosterone (DHA), androstenedione and estrogen.
  • For testosterone production, not only testicles are responsible, but also adrenal cortex, although their share in the production of the hormone.
  • Synthesis hormones carried out located in the testicles Leydig cells and tubule epithelial cells, the main source material is cholesterol, which enters the body of a man with food.
  • This happens as follows:
  1. Cells get cholesterol from the blood as acetate (the first link in the biosynthesis of this substance) or low density lipoproteins (compounds of proteins with fat-like components).

  2. Going on consistent chain of reactions of conversion of cholesterol to androstenedione.
  3. After the fusion of the two molecules of androstenedione, the formation of the final hormone - testosterone.

    The control of the hormone synthesis process is carried out by the hypothalamic-pituitary system. There, the hypothalamus produces a special hormone GnRH (gonadotropin-releasing hormone), which controls the pituitary gland and its constant release of gonadotropins - luteinizing hormone and follicle-stimulating hormone (the first regulates the maturation and functioning of Leydig cells, the second helps the production of spermatogenic epithelium).

    The work of the hypothalamic-pituitary system consists in the fact that the volume of synthesized testosterone is sent to the hypothalamus from the cells of the testicles. The feedback principle is triggered here.

    With normal hormone production, a standard amount of gonadotropins is produced.

    If testosterone becomes less or more - the level of gonadotropins is adjusted accordingly - increase or decrease.

    Testosterone hormone production involves a large number of different processes in the body and activates a number of internal organs. Every man must take care to help his body cope with such a complex process.

    1. To do this, you should know what affects the production of the hormone.
    2. Healthy sleep - lasting at least 7-8 hours, passing in the darkness and silence, awakening after which is accompanied by vigor and well-being,
    3. Nutrition - full, made up of fish, seafood, nuts, seeds, fruits and vegetables, filled with:
    • minerals (especially zinc, as well as calcium, magnesium and selenium),
    • vitamins (C, E, D, group B),
    • omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids,
    • proteins, fats and carbohydrates.

    It is important! Exclude from the diet should be any food consisting of fast carbohydrates (pastries, chocolate, white bread), excessively fatty foods and sodas based on a lot of sugar.

    • Water - at least 1.5 liters per day, and it is precisely purified water, and not carbonated drinks, juices or tea with coffee.
    • Weight control - the greater the excess body weight, the more actively female sex hormones are produced from adipose tissue, which inhibit the synthesis of testosterone.
    • Physical activity - An increase in the volume of male sex hormone occurs during moderate (one hour twice a week) sports with weights, as well as regular walking, sprinting, and performing exercises for the pelvic muscles.

    Rejection of bad habits, especially from alcohol - ethyl alcohol stimulates the conversion of testosterone to estrogen.

    Each man should control the level of testosterone. Both a decrease and an excessive increase in the level of androgen affect not only the libido and erectile function, but also the general condition of the body and the psychological state of the man.

    Watch the video: Testosterone Production (February 2020).

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