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Turban, fez, keffiyeh, skullcap ...

In different countries there is a national outfit. Most people are familiar with the image of a Muslim woman and the distinctive features of her clothes. Far fewer people know that Muslim men should also follow a modest dress code and wear special Muslim hats for men.

Historically, Muslims in different parts of the world are dressed differently - often following local customs that preceded Islam, and no one was usually worried about these differences. In earlier times, communities were quite isolated, which allowed everyone to have their own customs and traditions.

Muslim costume with description and photo

For men, the rules of Islamic clothing are much less restrictive, but no less important:

  • they should cover astrachis (part of the body from the navel to the knee) in front of all unrelated women,
  • you can’t wear gold and silk or clothes from a woman’s wardrobe,
  • must wear their underwear above the ankles.

Thobe (tunic) is a long clothing worn by Muslim men. The top is usually sewn like a shirt, but the length to the ankles, cut loose. Thobe is usually white, but it can also be in other colors, especially in winter. Depending on the country, variations of Thobe may have the names saucer (worn in Kuwait) or kandura (common in the United Arab Emirates).

Bisht - A smoother men's raincoat, which is sometimes worn over a man’s scarf. It is prevalent among senior government or religious leaders and in special occasions such as weddings.

Serwal - white cotton pants that men wear under clothing or other types of men's robes, along with a white cotton T-shirt. They are also used as pajamas. These pants have an elastic waist or adjustable drawstring. These pants are also known as mikasser.

In the Indian subcontinent, men and women wear long tunics called Shalwar Kamez. They are put on over loose trousers (shalvar), and the name kamez refers to the tunic.

The next element of men's clothing is isar. This is a wide strip of fabric that wraps around the waist, like a sarong and tucks into the belt. It is distributed by Yemen, the United Arab Emirates, Oman, parts of the Indian subcontinent and South Asia.

Muslim hats

The Takiya headdress or prayer cap is considered a respectful addition to the costume of a Muslim person, especially in religious cases or when going to the mosque. The type of hats used by Muslims varies between Islamic countries depending on tradition and fashion.

General basic types of men's hats:

Gutra and Aegal - A Muslim Muslim headdress, which is a square or rectangular shawl, together with a rope tape (usually black) to fix it in place.

Your hat will tell a lot about you

Nowadays, some items of clothing for many people are steadily associated with representatives of certain religions. This is especially true for hats. The reason for this is the cultural and historical diversity of peoples who profess one or another faith. Muslims are no exception in this regard. Consider some of the options that usually happen on the head of men in Islamic countries.


Take at least a turban (turban) - a piece of cloth wrapped around the head or headgear and having a length of 2.5 to 8 meters. Turban has spread among a number of peoples of North Africa, the Arabian Peninsula, India, and Central Asia. In Russia, this headdress can be seen on the representatives of the Muslim clergy. Orientalists claim that in the world there were at least a thousand ways to tie turban. In modern Arab countries, the form, color, manner of wearing a turban is very diverse. It has a different number of folds, a knot in front or behind, the end hangs on the side or on the back, etc.

All these nuances in one way or another testify to the profession, age and place of residence of the owner of the turban. In the Muslim world, turban is given special importance. This is explained by the fact that it was worn by the Prophet Muhammad (peace and blessings be upon him), recommending that his companions do the same. One of the hadiths says that he, while preaching in the mosque, put on a black turban, and its end descended on his shoulders.

Hadiths disagree about the exact length and color of this turban. Some hadiths mention that the length of the turban of the Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) was 7 cubits, that is, about 2.5-3 meters. It is said that the Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) gave his beloved turban to his closest associate, his son-in-law and cousin Ali (may Allah be pleased with him). By the way, the wavy lines on our Dagestan skullcaps are also directly related to the turban. This line, being a kind of fabric that is tied around the head, likens the skullcap to the turban.


The next headgear common among Muslims is keffiyeh. In Russian-speaking countries, the keffiyeh was called "Arafatka" in honor of the Palestinian leader Yasser Arafat, an integral part of whose image was the keffiyeh. Arafat laid it on his head so that the part of the fabric on the shoulder resembled the outlines of historical Palestine. The keffiyeh is a male head scarf, usually held by a black hoop. Depending on the region of origin of the person wearing the keffiyeh, the ornament, color, and also the method of tying the headgear may vary. For example, in Saudi Arabia this style is quite simple - a monochromatic or with a red ornament head scarf thrown over his head - sometimes even without a supporting hoop.

In Oman, the keffiyeh is tied in a much more complex way and in a completely different way than the Saudis, in the manner of turbaned garments. Omanis do not use the keffiyeh-supported hoop, which is universally accepted in Jordan and Palestine. As for the different colors of the keffiyeh, it almost always consists of white cotton fabric, and some have a colorful ornament in red or black. The keffiyeh with a red ornament is the most popular in the Gulf countries. And black and white - in Palestine and Lebanon. Red and white kufi are worn everywhere in these areas, but they are most closely associated with Jordan.


Of course, the most famous and widespread Muslim headdress is the hijab. Initially, they called absolutely any clothing that covered the female body. Indeed, in the literal translation this word is translated as a "veil." In an even broader sense, hijab can be called not only clothes, but also manners that meet the requirements of the Koran, the behavior and thoughts of the fair sex.

In the modern world, most often only a headscarf for women is called that which carefully covers not only the hair, but also the neck, ears and chest. This is the most common Muslim headdress for women.

It is worth remembering that in different cultures and even countries, traditions and features of wearing a hijab may vary. Therefore, in this article we will talk only about the most general principles.


We turn to the skullcap - the headdress, the most common among Muslims of Russia and the Central Asian part of the former USSR. The skullcap is defined as round or square, pointed or flat, lightweight hat, worn directly on the head. Its other name is takiya.

In Central Asia there is a wide variety of styles of skullcaps: there are both cone-shaped and hemispherical, square and flat. Their shape, features of the pattern, color, purpose differ from each other depending on ethnic and territorial affiliation.

In the North Caucasus, skullcaps are easier. For the most part, their diversity is made up of hats with a tassel hanging from the top, characteristic of Muslims of Chechnya, and cone-shaped skull-caps with a wavy or straight strip on the side, which have spread in Dagestan. Or it can be skullcaps with all kinds of embroidery and the usual inscription “made in ...”, which, as a gift to their loved ones, are brought by pilgrims from the Hajj.

In the East, the skullcap is not only a headdress. It is also used as the basis for tying a turban.

How to choose a hijab?

In order not to be mistaken in the selection of this Muslim headdress, one should strictly focus on several important details. This is the skin color, facial features and its shape. In this article we will give some tips.

It is advisable for women with a square shape to soften their features, therefore it is recommended to tie a scarf as freely as possible, opening the cheekbones and forehead, but hiding the jaw and chin.

If a Muslim woman has a round face, then it is desirable, on the contrary, to lengthen, giving an oval shape. To do this, open the forehead, covering the cheekbones.

For a girl with a rectangular shape of the face, it is best to slide the subjecine as close to the eyebrows as possible so that the face visually expands. The emphasis is on whiskey and cheekbones.

When the face is triangular in shape, the best option would be to tie a hijab in a free style. You can remove the existing imbalance by giving the face a diamond shape. To do this, hide the forehead on the sides, and frame the chin with the remaining free folds.

If you have an oval face, then consider yourself lucky, any option will do.


Some Muslims in Turkey and North Africa wear fez. The shape of the fez is a truncated cone, in the middle of the top of which a brush is inserted. She got her name from the city of Fez - one of the large cities of Morocco, which previously had a monopoly on the manufacture of this headdress. In Turkey, the traditional type of fez known to us is used everywhere - red with a black tassel. And in Tunisia, Libya and Morocco, it is two or three times longer and has a blue silk brush.

Fez, like the skullcap, is perfect for tying a turban. In 1826, the Ottoman sultan Mahmoud II proclaimed Fez the official headdress of the military and officials, after which it rapidly spread throughout the Empire. However, already 100 years later, in 1925, the president of the new Turkey, Kemal Atatürk, banned the red hat, and today few Turks wear classic fez.

The remaining hats are those that can be found everywhere, not only in Muslim countries. Namely: caps, baseball caps, hats, hats. Many Muslims wear them both in the mosque and in public places. Wearing the above does not in any way contradict religious rules. On the contrary, covering the head is the Sunnah of the Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him).

An important point is also the ethics of wearing a hat. This means that a person who wears a skullcap is even more inadmissible to commit acts reproached by our religion.

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Wearing rules

Now, as a Muslim female headdress, a hijab is used, which is a stole, a square scarf or scarf. The main thing is that it has a base on which the scarf itself is attached with pins.

The outfit itself consists of several components. This is a sub jaundice - the so-called hood reaching the chest, it has a hole for the face. The universal hijab al-Amir usually consists of a cap with a hood. One part covers the ears and hair, and the second - the chest and neck.

If you want to learn how to sew a Muslim hijab headdress, then you should be aware that its base must be made of silk, cotton or viscose. But the colors and textures are made very different, decorating with rhinestones, prints or even embroidery.

For any Muslim woman, the process of tying a hijab can be compared to a certain sacrament. Girls have been taught this since the age of five or six. By the way an adult woman knits a hijab, as well as which one prefers to leave the house, you can determine her desires and mood.

More stringent options for women

A stricter Muslim headdress for women is niqab. Moreover, he is much less popular than hijab.

Niqab covers his face almost completely, leaving only a narrow cut for the eyes. It consists of three parts. The first must be tied on the forehead using ribbons located at the back, the second is sewn in front at the edges, and the third is located behind, covering the neck and hair. In some cases, the girls also use the fourth part - the veil, which closes the eyes themselves.

There is also a burqa (its variants are burka or veil) - this is a dressing gown or coverlet that completely covers the woman’s body from head to toe. The difference between them is only that there is a veil in the burqa and the burqa (it is attached separately in the burqa), and the veil is both with an open face and an eye opening.

A woman in niqab or veil can usually be found in countries in the Middle East. Muslim women in niqab are often found in European countries where a large number of representatives of this religion live. At the same time, recently in some EU countries they began to impose restrictions on wearing a niqab or hijab.

Burqa and burqa are found only in the most conservative Muslim countries. These include Pakistan and Afghanistan.

For men

Muslim Muslim hats, of course, are not so diverse. First of all, it is a skullcap. It can be of several types (four-wedge or cylindrical-conical cut). Traditionally, they are worn both in cities and in villages in Central Asian countries. Often men in such a headdress can be found in the Russian Urals (Tatarstan, Bashkiria), Volga regions.

It is worth noting that the skullcap is now out of fashion. Most often, it is worn by representatives of the older generation. And in winter, young people often choose classic European hats - the most common knitted hats.

The tradition of wearing hats, which their religion prescribes to believers, has millennial roots. Until recently, not only Muslims, but also Christians and Jews strictly adhered to the rules of piety, daily covering their heads with scarves, turban, kufi, skullcaps and hats.

There are several suras in the Qur'an that state what religious women should cover.

“Tell the believers to lower their eyes and keep themselves from sensual desires: this is the greatest purity for them. God knows their business. Tell the believing women to lower their eyes, to protect themselves from sexual desire, to show only those of their outfits, which outward, put covers on their breasts ... ” (Quran 24:30, 31).

The lack of clear indications of what a woman needs to wear has given rise to a variety of women's clothing in Islam. Currently, there are six main types of hats and varieties of clothing for Muslim women. These are niqab, hijab, abaya, burqa, chadra and burka.

Perhaps the most famous and popular headdress of Muslim women is the hijab. The homeland of the modern version of the hijab is the Arabian Peninsula. Over time, the hijab has spread throughout the Islamic world. It became a kind of protection for those women and girls who primarily value morality as one of the fundamental foundations of faith.

The hijab is rooted in antiquity. It is known that women wore it in the pre-Islamic period in India.According to Professor Motahari, "if asceticism and the rejection of worldly pleasures were one of the reasons for the appearance of the hijab, it should be recognized that India has adopted the hijab since ancient times, since India was one of the centers of asceticism agitation and the rejection of material pleasures."

Muslim men from the time of the Prophet Muhammad (peace and blessings be upon him) traditionally wore a turban (turban), which is a piece of cloth wrapped around a head or skullcap. According to one of the hadiths, the prophet preached in a black turban, and its end fell on his shoulders.

In the Middle Ages, Muslims wore a turban in all countries of the Islamic world. Over time, she began to give way to other hats. In the Turkic states, the skullcap became popular.

There is a wide variety of skullcaps. Square, flat, conical, round, they became so popular that in the early Middle Ages they were worn even in Christian countries.

In Russia, the skullcap, tafia, until the end of the 17th century, was a common headdress among the boyars and nobles. In everyday life, even Russian tsars dressed her. The historian Ivan Zabelin wrote:

“Our tafya, most likely, came to us from the Tatars, although she settled only in a ... noble and wealthy class, the main thing is that this class of Tatars took the custom to cut their hair, as Fletcher says, tightly to the skin, and noble boyars, says Olearius, shaved their heads and considered it an ornament. The naked head, of course, demanded the necessary coverage, which was what tafya was, in Tatar such. ”

In the sixteenth century, Russians put on taffy even in the church. The Stoglavy Cathedral, which took place in 1551, drew attention to this violation of Christian traditions. One of its decisions states:

“Also, from now on, that all Orthodox kings and princes and nobles and other nobles and all Orthodox Christians would come to the cathedral churches and other holy churches to any divine singing without taffy and hats. And they would stand in prayer with fear and trembling with their heads uncovered, according to the divine apostle. “From now on, tafia would never appear on all Orthodox Christians and were trampled upon.”

In its decree, the High-domed Council referred to the text of the New Testament, where the apostle Paul says:

“I also want you to know that to every husband the head is Christ, the wife to the head is the husband, and to Christ the head is God. Every man who prays or prophesies with his head covered is ashamed of his head. And every wife, praying or prophesying with her head open, shames her head, for it is the same as if she had been shaved. For if the wife does not want to be covered, then let her cut her hair, and if the wife is ashamed to be cut or shaved, let her be covered. So the husband should not cover his head, because he is the image and glory of God, and the wife is the glory of the husband. For not a husband from a wife, but a wife from a husband, and not a husband was created for a wife, but a wife for a husband. Therefore, a wife should have a sign of authority over her on her head, for the angels ”(1 Corinthians 11: 3-10).

In the second half of the XVIII century in North Africa and the Ottoman Empire, a male headdress - fez - became widespread. In 1826, Sultan Mahmoud II proclaimed Fez to be the official headdress of the military and officials. Since then, for over a hundred years it has been an integral part of the image of a Muslim in many countries of the East. After the proclamation of the Republic of Turkey, fez was banned by President Kemal Atatürk.

Perhaps the most famous and popular Muslim headdress is the keffiyeh. Outside the Islamic world, this shawl, worn by both men and women, is also known as arafatka. This name he received in honor of the famous Palestinian leader Yasser Arafat.

In different Arab countries and regions, the keffiyeh has various colors and colors. In the Gulf countries, men wear keffiyeh on their heads, and supports its special hoop. Most often, the keffiyeh is made of cotton fabric, but recently a lot of Chinese fakes with the use of synthetics have appeared.

Until the end of the XIX century in Ukraine, the vast majority of women wore hats in accordance with the traditions of their religion, thereby maintaining a fairly high level of morality in society. According to modern research in medical science, women who hide their bodies retain health and beauty for a long time.

Watch the video: HOW TO tie a SHEMAGH scarf as a HEADWRAP or HAT (February 2020).

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