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What are the consequences of testicular varicocele? What complications can occur in men if not treated?


Testicular varicocele is a fairly common disease, according to statistics, 15-20% of adult men suffer from it. Almost half of those diagnosed with infertility also have this disease. The onset of the development of male varicocele disease occurs during puberty, but until adulthood it almost does not appear and does not make itself felt.

What is a varicocele?

Varicocele in men is a manifestation of varicose veins. The veins that surround the spermatic cord of the testicles suffer. 2 testicles are rarely affected by this disease, often diagnosed with left-sided varicocele.

The size of the veins of the spermatic cord increases, nodules appear in the area of ​​the plexiform plexus. This condition is often caused by insufficient functioning of the scrotal vein valve apparatus.. As a result of these failures, there is a violation of the nutrition of the testicles and spermatogenesis.

Note! The rarest case of the disease is considered the appearance of him in the right testicle.

The importance of a regular visit (twice a year) to a urologist is difficult to overestimate, because many do not understand what a varicocele is and have been tormented for years trying to conceive a child. The diagnosiss they are placed too late, when the process is difficult to irreversible - the clinic has a treatment for infertility.

Important! Medical studies have shown that there is a high risk of developing the disease in men with a genetic or anatomical predisposition.

With this disease, you can live at least all your life, almost without discomfort, the main danger is complications - the development of infertility, so you need to know what varicocele is and what danger the disease carries.

Causes

In order to see a doctor on time, you need to know what causes varicocele. Blood that flows through the scrotum, surrounding tissues and testicles with valves rises up to the renal vein. If the body is healthy, then the valve prevents it from dropping down, when it cannot completely close, venous renal blood flows back into the testes. As a result, blood flow slows down, the tissues that surround the testicle suffer from a lack of oxygen.

The normal temperature of the testicles is several degrees lower than the temperature of the human body, if a varicocele develops on the left testicle, then the temperature rises, because it is located in the core of varicose veins. For this reason, the main functions of the testicles are significantly inhibited - the development and growth of sperm. These processes are irreparable harm to men's health, namely:

  1. Stagnation in the testicular veins of metabolic products.
  2. The kidney vein contains poisons, they poison the testicle.

The key reasons for the appearance of varicocele in men, which leads to serious consequences, are:

  • congenital fragility of the walls of blood vessels,
  • valve failure
  • high, often increasing blood pressure in the veins of the genitals (pelvis, scrotum). This is more likely not a cause, but a process that has the potential to develop a disease
  • poor oxygenation of the testicles,
  • accumulation of radicals in the scrotum,
  • regular heavy sports, which can cause valve malfunction,
  • frequent constipation.

Symptoms and signs

Varicocele on the left, right, or varicocele on both sides is quite difficult to determine. Only a doctor can make a qualified diagnosis, but there are a number of symptoms and signs that will make an appointment with a specialist.

Danger! The main reason why men often do not suspect a disease is its asymptomatic behavior in most cases, and when serious visual changes or discomfort appear, it is too late.

Symptoms of the appearance of this ailment:

  1. Pain in the groin and scrotum.
  2. One testicle has changed in density and / or size.
  3. There are changes in the spermogram.
  4. Explicit changes in the appearance of the genitals.
  5. Testicular depletion syndrome - the production of testosterone in small volumes.

Symptoms of varicocele also depend on the stage of development. They exist 3. The first and second do not actually have obvious effects on the body. There may be a slight heaviness in the scrotum, sometimes aching pain. It increases with weight lifting or with increased intensity of the load.

The third stage - swelling occurs, the color of the scrotum changes, the deformation is already visible visually, especially if the varicocele is on the left the scrotum will sag strongly.

Note! Men are wondering what will happen if not treated with varicocele, will it lead to impotence? Given the peculiarity of the course of the disease, such an outcome is quite likely. The delivery of oxygen and nutrients to the tissues is disrupted, as a result - a decrease in testosterone production. Each sexual intercourse is accompanied by pain in the scrotum. But men can be reassured, such an outcome of varicocele of the left testicle is possible only in very advanced cases.

Effects

Male varicocele disease has consequences if not treated on time. The main and frightening for many, especially childless men, is infertility. It happens of such types:

  • Endocrine If varicocele on the testicle is not treated, the quality of the sperm decreases, they become inactive, cannot fertilize the egg.
  • Immune It arises as a protective reaction of the body - the immune system perceives testicular tissue by a foreign body and is actively fighting sperm.

Statistics! 60% of varicocele patients have problems with sperm (their motility, the ability to fertilize an egg), 40% of men undergoing research on the treatment of infertility, are diagnosed with varicocele.

Diagnostics

An experienced urologist will determine the disease by visual symptoms using palpation, treatment will be prescribed immediately. With a significant increase in veins, additional diagnostics are not needed.

If it was possible to identify the disease in the initial stages or there is a risk of varicocele recurrence, additional studies are needed, among them:

Moreover, these manipulations with varicocele in men are carried out in two positions - lying and standing. This is the only way to get the full picture.

You also need a spermogram in duplicate, at least. The interval between the collection of seminal fluid from 4 to 12 weeks.

Treatment

Relapse of varicocele or its primary symptoms require treatment. Moreover, the most effective method is surgery. Alternative treatment has proven inefficiency in this case.

Direct indications for surgery are severe pain in the genital area, a diagnosis of infertility.

Note! If a man does not plan to conceive a child, has reached old age, and he has no complaints, then you can not be treated at all.

The diagnosis of varicocele in a man, boy or boy requires compulsory treatment, and today there are many surgical techniques in which local or general anesthesia is used.

Men ask if surgery is dangerous? The answer will please: no, not dangerous. You can return to normal life in a couple of days. Data from medical statistics confirm that the spermogram after surgery improves, the likelihood of conception increases, and pregnancy occurs in 45% of cases.

  1. Ivanssevich. It is cheap, can be done at any stage of the development of the disease. Local anesthesia is used.With her there is a risk of injury, the effect is not always expected.
  2. Marmara. This option is how to treat varicocele is popular. A very effective operation, it does not include incisions, after it there are no complications.
  3. Laparoscopic It is also effective, carried out under general anesthesia, there are scars, but they are small, rehabilitation is quick.
  4. Endoscopic. A minimally traumatic method of parvaricocele, treatment is carried out under general anesthesia. This method is the only possible with bilateral varicocele, with severe cutting pains in the scrotum.
  5. Microsurgical. Under general anesthesia, the result is noticeable immediately, but it takes a lot of time for rehabilitation.

Conclusion

Varicocele - the disease is not fatal, but can cause severe discomfort. The danger is its consequences, and not the fact of existence. To monitor the state of men's health, you need to visit a urologist twice a year, then the onset of the disease can be detected and quickly cured.

Most often a man Varicocele (varicocele) is detected after visiting a clinic for the treatment of infertility. The main reason is the pathological expansion of the veins of the spermatic cord.

Varicocele. Causes and symptoms

According to the modern version of the mechanism of the occurrence of diseases, scientists concluded: Varicocele symptoms and the mechanism of formation are similar to symptoms of varicose veins, so the principle of treatment is based on the elimination of the primary source. The primary source is blood clotting, circulatory disorders, or hormonal disorders.

The main ones are:

  • congenital weak walls of blood vessels,
  • increased blood pressure on the veins that are in the scrotum, due to which there is a sprain of veins,
  • incorrect operation of the valves, there are difficulties in the movement of blood in the direction and back,
  • increased temperature of the testicles, appears due to stagnation of blood in the scrotum,
  • poor oxygen saturation of the testicles,
  • accumulation of radicals in the scrotum,
  • regular exercise in heavy sports, which may interfere with the correct operation of the valves,
  • the appearance of a tumor.

In addition to the above, there may be other causes of varicocele, in any case, if only you find this disease, you need to consult a doctor without delay.

Varicocele can be detected by several signs:

  • Dilated veins.
  • Pain in the scrotum.
  • An increase in the size or sagging part of the scrotum.
  • Discomfort and unusual sensations in the scrotum.

Very often, the symptoms of varicocele may not occur, so it will be prudent to regularly be observed by a doctor, so as not to start the disease, and not cause complications.

Postoperative recommendations.

After the operation, it is recommended to refrain from any kind of physical activity and emotional stress.

Over the next 2-3 months after recovery, restrictions on physical labor are imposed. Restrictions on sexual activity vary from 20 to 30 days, at the discretion of the doctor, the period can be extended, it depends on the degree of varicocele.

We should not forget about regular examinations at the attending physician. Only in this way can complete recovery of all necessary functions be achieved.

Physiological effects of varicocele

Is it dangerous or not varicocele? Congestion in the vessels of the testicles lead to a decrease in oxygen access to them, they also increase the temperature of the scrotum by 2-3 degrees. If in the early stages of the disease, the testicle affected by varicocele swells and grows in size, then later on during exacerbation it gradually atrophiessags and decreases. This is due to the death and drying out of tissues due to oxygen starvation.

What affects varicocele in men? Such processes can provoke the occurrence of other diseases and affect their course.The following are the main consequences of varicocele in men:

    Hydrocele (dropsy of the testicle) is characterized by the accumulation of serous fluid in the space between the vaginal sheets. The scrotum grows and takes a pear-shaped shape, and its surface becomes smooth.

Hydrocele can be caused by circulatory disorders in the testes, including varicocele. The effect of varicocele on the prostate gland depends on the extent of the disease.. If congestion is observed only in the vessels of one testicle, then the likelihood of developing prostatitis is minimal.

If two testicles are immediately affected by varicocele for a long time, then the likelihood of developing pathology of the prostate gland increases, but does not become one hundred percent, since the guaranteed development of prostatitis is ensured only by extensive congestive phenomena in the entire pelvic region. Teratozoospermia with varicocele manifested by an increase in the number of defective sperm in relation to their total number.

Such sperm cells are not capable of fully fertilizing the egg, therefore teratozoospermia during its development leads to infertility.

Oxygen deficiency caused by varicocele disrupts the formation of germ cells and increases the number of defective sperm. Orchitis is an inflammation of the testicles of an immune nature. With a disease, the immune system begins to perceive the male sex cells as hostile and starts the process of their destruction, which leads to infertility.

Orchitis is provoked by varicocele of the 3rd degree.

  • An unequivocal relationship between varicocele and the development of testicular cancer (including a carcinoid variety) has not been established, but, like all other pathologies of this organ, varicose veins increase the likelihood of malignancy in the presence of other pathogenic factors.
  • About infertility

    What will happen if you do not treat varicocele? What does it affect? What threatens? One way or another, later varicose testicles in men negatively affects reproductive function. Losing the ability to thermoregulate and increase the temperature of the scrotum creates an unfavorable environment for the functioning of sperm, increases the likelihood of defective germ cells.

    If you do not treat varicocele, then diseases such as orchitis and hydrocele, which also adversely affect reproductive functions, will arise.

    Negatively affects the ability to conceive a child and general lack of nutrient intakeassociated with circulatory disorders with varicose veins.

    But varicocele does not always lead to infertility. If the sperm of a man is inherently resistant to negative influences, then oxygen deficiency and overheating of the scrotum will not lead to their complete loss of fertilization.

    Postoperative complications

    Although modern surgical procedures are relatively painless, in some cases, they can lead to complications of varicocele:

    1. During the recovery period, ovarian tissues are vulnerable to infectious infections that can trigger the inflammatory process. To avoid this, the patient should take antibiotics.
    2. If the operation was not performed carefully enough, then the formation of thrombophlebitis is possible. With this disease, the walls of the vein become inflamed, a thrombus forms in them.
    3. The appearance of a hematoma in the scar and pain.
    4. The development of edema and redness of the tissues in the incision.
    5. In rare cases, after varicocele, symptoms such as dropsy of the testicles, fever, and atrophy may occur.

    In 20% of cases after surgery, the symptoms of varicocele begin to appear again, that is, relapse occurs. The figure of 20% is averaged, the exact probability of relapse varies in people depending on age and other factors.

    Is it possible to live with varicocele? Such an ailment is not a disease that significantly worsens a man’s quality of life. But the sooner this disease begins to manifest itself, the more negative consequences can be expected in the future.

    Therefore, varicocele, which occurs at an early age, necessarily requires prompt elimination, while testicular varicosity, which manifests itself in adulthood, is much less likely to lead to negative consequences. But even those forms of varicocele that do not bother with pain and other negative symptoms, if possible, require therapeutic measures.

    Causes of varicose veins

    Varicocele in men is one of the manifestations of vascular pathologies. With this disorder, which is most often diagnosed on the left, the veins surrounding the spermatic cord and constituting the plexus plexus suffer. There are 4 degrees of varicose veins:

    • first, when the violation is detected only by ultrasound,
    • the second and third, in which the dilated vessels are felt standing or lying down,
    • fourth, when changes are detected by visual inspection.

    Despite the prevalence of the disease, the causes of its appearance are not fully understood. It is believed that the onset of the disease is caused by structural features and pathological changes in blood vessels that carry blood to the heart.


    The main conditions for the development of varicocele are:

    • disruption of the valve apparatus, leading to stagnation,
    • congenital weakness and fragility of the venous walls,
    • renal vein thrombosis,
    • frequent constipation, hemorrhoids,
    • oxygen deficiency,
    • increased abdominal pressure.

    Many men are wondering if varicocele is dangerous. Long standing, regular physical overload associated with work or sports, affect the state of the vessels. Excessive voltage leads to the expansion of the lumen of the veins so that the valves can not cope with the flow of blood, and it rushes in the opposite direction. Hyperthermia (fever) develops in the testicle, and spermatogenesis is impaired.

    There is a group of factors that increase the risk of developing varicose veins:

    • dangerous age (boy or teenager during puberty),
    • anatomical features of the structure of the vessels of the testis, having an innate character,
    • hereditary predisposition
    • low body weight
    • high growth.

    Varicocele in men: a list of complications

    As with any disease, the lack of timely treatment for expansion of the veins increases the risks of developing irreversible processes and pathological conditions. What does varicocele affect? Given the age of the patients, first of all, the issue of reproductive dysfunction, as well as other possible complications, is acute.

    Inaction Threats

    There is an opinion that with varicose veins, a healthy testicle can become an equivalent replacement for the patient, and they are in no hurry to contact a specialist. Meanwhile, it suffers no less, since a lack of oxygen and metabolic disorders affects him too. Inaction during the development of pathology can cause the following complications of varicocele:

    1. Swelling in the scrotum, a sharp change in the size of the testicle.
    2. Painful sensations, which acquire a lasting character, and do not subside even at rest.
    3. Violation of the spermatogenesis process, problems with ejaculation, complete cessation of fluid production.
    4. Testosterone levels are reduced.
    5. Sagging scrotum due to excessive load of constantly expanding vessels.

    Sometimes varicocele in men causes more serious consequences if left untreated.

    1. Atrophy of the affected testicle due to drying out of the tubule producing sperm.
    2. Signs of severe intoxication, developing due to the accumulation of toxic substances in the affected organ.
    3. Potency impairment, decreased quality of sexual life due to insufficient blood supply and oxygen deficiency.
    4. Infertility, which develops under the influence of the above factors.

    Risks during surgery

    Currently, both classical and microsurgical techniques are used in the treatment of varicocele:

    • operations of Marmara and Palomo,
    • laparoscopic vein clipping,
    • endovascular phlebosclerosis.

    This has reduced the risk of complications after surgery and to reduce the number of relapses of the disease. At the moment, the most common and often performed is considered to be varicocelectomy - an operation according to Ivanissevich, the essence of which is the ligation and resection (removal) of the left testicular vein. But, as practice shows, this type of intervention is highly likely to relapse (up to 30%). With such an operation, a risk of developing renal caval anastomosis is possible due to difficulty in the venous outflow of blood from the kidney.

    Any surgical intervention, even minimally invasive, has certain consequences. There are various symptoms characteristic of the postoperative period. Some of them are considered the norm, and many are considered dangerous pathologies.

    You should not worry if, after surgery, the following conditions are observed:

    • small hematomas in the excision area,
    • redness of the skin,
    • swelling of the scrotum, which disappears within three weeks,
    • slight discharge of a pinkish liquid (sucrose) at the puncture site,
    • small seals of the skin in the area adjacent to the operated.

    The following symptoms are dangerous and require mandatory medical intervention:

    • fever that lasts for several days,
    • the formation of hematomas in large areas of the skin,
    • the development of an allergic reaction to the injected contrast agent (with embolization),
    • discharge of brown or yellow liquid with an unpleasant odor,
    • pain in the abdomen and scrotum,
    • swelling redness of the genitals,
    • decrease or complete loss of sensitivity on the inner surface of the thigh.

    Complications after surgery

    If surgical treatment was carried out using minimally invasive procedures, then complications, as a rule, do not arise. The development of unpleasant and even dangerous consequences can be affected by the use of traditional methods.

    1. Dropsy of the testicle or hydrocele. It develops due to the accumulation of serous fluid in the scrotum, as a result of which it increases and takes the form of a pear, and the skin is smoothed.
    2. The presence of open access and the continuation of blood flow, which contributes to its accumulation in the spermatic vein or overflow of the epididymis.
    3. Orchitis. Testicular inflammation of an immune nature. The lack of therapy leads to problems with conception, and later to complete infertility.

    Possibility of developing repeated varicocele

    According to patient reviews, in 20-30% of cases after surgery, the symptoms of varicose veins develop again. Relapse occurs when normal blood flow is fully restored.

    Among other factors for the occurrence of relapse include:

    • congenital anatomical features of the location of blood vessels,
    • the presence of duplicate veins,
    • lack of valves
    • slow blood flow
    • genetic predisposition.

    Prevention of complications and relapses

    Since the causes of varicocele are not fully identified, there are no special measures to prevent its development. Doctors identify a number of measures aimed at reducing the risks of varicose veins and the timely detection of the disease.

    1. Regular consultations and preventive examinations by a surgeon or urologist are recommended for male patients aged 19-20 years.The puberty period has already been completed, therefore, it is not difficult to detect dilated veins.
    2. Self-examination at home is indicated for men of reproductive age. Feeling the scrotum, one can easily detect pathological changes, as well as a decrease in the size and consistency of the testicle.

    There are also several rules, the implementation of which will help prevent the risk of relapse after the operation.

    • Exclude wearing tight underwear.
    • Lead an active lifestyle, include in the daily routine sets of exercises to prevent stagnation of blood in the pelvic organs.
    • Avoid excessive loads.
    • Adjust nutrition to prevent the development of constipation.
    • Refuse bad habits - smoking and drinking alcohol.
    • Lead a full sexual life.
    • Conduct regular preventive examinations at least twice a year.

    Main risks

    By itself, testicular varicose in men does not pose a danger to life and health, often it is even asymptomatic, as a result of which there are no complaints. Often, pathology is diagnosed only at a routine examination by a urologist or during a medical examination, for example, before serving in the army.

    In other cases, patients feel pain or a pulling sensation in the inguinal region, irritability, lethargy, and weakening of sexual desire may appear. Without timely treatment, in this case, a temporary deterioration in mood can develop into a clear depression, and the situation in the family may worsen. In many patients, pain intensifies with arousal and direct sexual contact, sex no longer brings pleasure and relaxation, which affects the psycho-emotional and physical condition.

    But the main danger men face with varicose testicular veins is infertility.

    This happens for various reasons. Firstly, a persistent increase in temperature in the testicles due to stagnation of blood and violation of thermoregulation can affect, as a result of which the quality of sperm changes. Secondly, hypoxia, that is, oxygen starvation of cells in connection with circulatory disorders, can play a role. Thirdly, the septum between the spermatic ducts and blood vessels may be disturbed, as a result of which immune cells, entering the seminal fluid, will produce antibodies to sperm.

    Varicocele takes a leading position among the causes of male infertility, in 15% of cases it is testicular varicosity that causes a violation of reproductive function.

    Sperm quality is determined by sperm. This analysis allows you to identify how many sperm are contained in a milliliter of sperm, how mobile and morphologically correct in shape, etc. A man with varicocele must be constantly monitored by a urologist in order to regularly take tests and monitor the course of the disease. If the tests begin to deteriorate, the doctor will advise you to have an operation to avoid infertility.

    Conclusion

    If a varicocele is detected, a man is obliged to contact a urologist as soon as possible. The reason for the consultation is a change in the appearance of the scrotum and a feeling of discomfort in the pelvic organs. Timely initiated therapy will help to cure the disease by conservative methods or with the help of surgical intervention, but with minimal complications.

    What are the consequences of testicular varicocele? What complications can occur in men if not treated?

    Varicocele may not manifest itself as significant inconvenience and pain, but in the long run this disease leads to a number of complications that adversely affect the functioning of the male reproductive system.

    About what is dangerous varicocele in men, if you do not operate, we will discuss this article.

    What will happen if you do not treat varicocele

    Hippocrates studied the varicose veins of the testicles in his practice, which indicates that the disease has been known to mankind since ancient times. Despite this, there is still no cure for pathology. The only way to completely get rid of the disease is surgery. All other methods are only symptomatic and do not allow varicocele to progress.

    Many people prefer to do without surgery, if possible, and in the case of testicular varicose veins, this option really is. However, in this case, it is necessary to adhere to the doctor's recommendations and apply a complex of conservative therapy.

    If the patient does not do this, the disease gradually develops, painful symptoms begin to appear, infertility develops. In advanced cases, other diseases of the genitourinary system, more serious and unpleasant, can occur.

    The likelihood of developing infertility is different for each individual patient. She is the higher, the older the man, also affects the duration of the development of pathology, the complexity of its course. The risk of impaired fertility increases if more than one testicle is affected, which happens in most cases, but both. Also, the likelihood of developing infertility increases in the case of hormonal changes caused by a decrease in the level of testosterone, which is also produced in the testes.

    Thus, the question of what will happen if the varicocele is not treated, it can be answered that the prognosis for the patient is poor. However, many men feel fine even without surgery, fulfilling only simple requirements. To stop the development of pathology, you need to use the courses prescribed by the urologist, do gymnastics and, if possible, bring your lifestyle back to normal.

    Relapse statistics

    Relapse of varicocele is often experienced by individuals who have had surgery in childhood. Statistics report a 20% recurrence of the disease. The rate of disease recurrence in men is slightly lower, that is, no more than 10%. Modern equipment will reduce the risk of secondary disease. You can remove the risks by monitoring and ensuring the identification of the weakest areas in the patient.

    Attention!

    Repeated treatment of varicocele is carried out due to surgery. When identifying the first signs, you need to contact a surgeon or urologist. It is better to visit the doctor who performed the operation.

    Persons of fertile age are recommended to undergo a spermogram. Based on the information obtained during such an examination, they decide on the advisability of surgical interventions. Rarely, in patients with an individual predisposition to the disease, relapse can occur 3 times.

    Relapse is a fairly common situation detected in 40% of men. A similar manifestation is observed in the form of a resumption of the disease.

    More often the manifestation of the disease is possible in adolescents because surgeons recommend that you wait until the onset of puberty and begin to determine the indications for intervention.

    Most often, the pathology progresses sluggishly, and its symptoms may bother the man 6-12 months after the radical technique.

    Disease prevention.

    There are no definite advice on the prevention of varicocele. This disease is caused by the anatomical and ethical characteristics of the male body.

    1. The only thing that every young man should do is to visit a doctor regularly.
    2. You should not wait, vacancies in that and the disease will manifest itself.
    3. Often, a person who is sick with varicocele does not have any symptoms.

    In order for whatever the expansion of the veins of the spermatic cord happens, doctors give some tips:

    • First of all, you need to watch your chair. If you have problems with going to the toilet regularly, then you need to take action immediately,
    • it’s safest not to bother your body with huge physical exertion, because they increase the load on the veins,
    • you need to lead a correct lifestyle, you need to give up alcohol, tobacco products, saturate the body with vitamins, eat a large amount of vegetables and fruits, lead a regular sex life, systematic rest,
    • be examined on time
    • sit less, move more,
    • After surgery, perform exercises and massage.

    Once again we want to remind you, take the varicocele seriously because of the possible serious consequences with an advanced form of the disease.

    What will happen if the operation is done

    Doctors still have not come to a consensus on the need for prompt removal of varicocele. Some consider this measure to be the only correct and necessary in any case, even in the early stages of the development of the disease, since this avoids the risk of infertility.

    Others prefer to use conservative therapy and regularly examine the patient in order to notice the development of the disease in time and only in this case, to carry out the operation. Knowing the danger of varicocele, patients still more often agree to surgery than to conservative treatment and passive monitoring of the development of the disease.

    Positive consequences of the operation

    Surgical intervention is not prescribed in every case of testicular varicose in men; indications for surgery are severe pain or the risk of infertility. If the procedure went without complications, and the patient successfully passed the rehabilitation period, fertility in most cases is restored within 3-6 months.

    Blood circulation is restored to normal in different ways, it all depends on the method by which the operation was performed. After traditional methods, which are currently considered quite outdated, improvements occur within 3 months after the intervention. The same can be said about laparoscopy, which is currently considered the most preferred procedure for varicocele.

    Blood circulation is restored faster only after a microsurgical operation, since it does not bind, but the pathological vein is completely removed.

    Also, after surgery, the balance of hormones is restored. The concentration of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) is reduced, the increased content of which can lead to impotence, as well as to a decrease or complete absence of sexual desire. The concentration of the male hormone testosterone, on the contrary, rises to normal, as the thermoregulation in the testes is restored.

    THERAPEUTIC ACTIVITIES

    Treatment of male varicocele requires timely intervention. The presented disease is a condition that cannot disappear on its own, so you should not rely on the fact that the pathology itself will pass. This is due to the lack of the ability to normalize blood flow, since damaged valves require treatment.

    Often resort to an operational technique for eliminating pathology, which is associated with the low effectiveness of drug therapy. In rare cases, the presented method together with traditional medicine can lead to a positive result. This often occurs in the early stages. For this reason, it is not recommended to independently eliminate the disease, since the described methods will lead to a good outcome only at an early stage, which can not always be detected by the patient.

    • The patient together with his doctor can decide on the need to eliminate varicocele.
    • It is recommended to get rid of the disease at a young age, as the disease affects reproductive function.
    • If a man is in adulthood, has children, and the pathology does not threaten his health, then a decision may be made that there is no need to treat the pathology.

    Treatment should begin in the following situations:

    1. The presence of discomfort.
    2. The appearance in the groin area of ​​pain, which occurs frequently.
    3. The threat of infertility or the presence of this phenomenon.
    4. At the moment, there are a large number of methods of surgical intervention. The number of such tactics has long exceeded 100. The most famous are the following methods of surgical intervention:
      1. Marmar Method.
      2. Operation Palomo.
      3. The technique of Ivanissevich.
      4. Laparoscopic varicocelectomy.
      5. Sclerotherapy.

    1. The method is chosen on the basis of the patient’s well-being and his condition, the presence of the necessary experience and equipment of the medical institution at the doctor. In addition, you need to pay attention to the restrictions that prohibit the use of a particular method. Such factors are poor blood coagulation, the development of acute illnesses and the patient’s plight.

    In most operations, the doctor must bandage the vein of the testicle, which allows you to change the blood flow and stop the flow of blood into the plexiform plexus. Often used laparoscopy technique. Surgery in this case occurs quickly. There is no risk of infection, complications, or severe blood loss during surgery.

    After the completion of surgery, fertility is restored. The result of the operational methodology will be visible only after some time, which will be manifested in improving the quality of spermogram and other indicators. The patient should introduce restrictions and set the mode after surgery. You should often visit a doctor and consult with him if you have questions. Care should be taken to sexual contacts and physical activity.

    POSSIBLE DANGER

    The named pathology does not pose a danger to the health of men. A lethal outcome due to the development of the disease is almost impossible, but only if the patient does not have other diseases in advanced form against the background of the development of varicocele.

    • However, the intervention must be carried out in a timely manner, since the disease is a risk to the patient's reproductive system.
    • In this case, the appearance of infertility is a frequent complication of the pathology.
    • However, in the absence of intervention, there is a likelihood of developing more dangerous processes - testicular atrophy, inflammation and other phenomena.

    Thus, the disease does not threaten the life of the patient, but the disease must be treated in a timely manner. It is not recommended to engage in the independent elimination of pathology, since the lack of information about the causes of varicocele significantly reduces the effectiveness of home therapy.

    The negative effects of the operation

    Surgical intervention can not only help the patient, but also exacerbate the situation. This can be affected not only by a medical error during the operation, but also by the individual characteristics of the body, as well as the faithful implementation of the recommendations of a specialist. At the preliminary consultation, the urologist must definitely warn that no one can give 100% guarantees of positive dynamics.

    Having got rid of a varicocele, it is not always possible to cure infertility if it arose for this reason. In some cases, spermatogenesis returns to normal only a few years after surgery or does not come at all. It is impossible to say in advance what the result will be. Many of those who refuse the operation argue that there is no guarantee of positive changes, and therefore the risk can be considered unjustified.

    In fact, if you choose a reliable clinic and a professional surgeon, the risk is minimal, it is much less than the likely therapeutic effect. Modern methods can get rid of pathology without complications and relapses in the vast majority of cases. Traditional operations are not so gentle, but nevertheless, when all the requirements are met, they eliminate the problem no worse.

    Among the most negative possible consequences of the operation, the following factors can be distinguished:

    1. Hydrocele (dropsy of the testicle). This pathology is characterized by the accumulation of lymph fluid between the shells of the testicle. Most often, this complication occurs after an operation according to the Ivanissevich method, during which an error was made.
    2. Testicular atrophy. This disease is a decrease in testicle size and a decrease in its functionality. Subsequently, without proper treatment, this can lead to an irreversible loss of the ability to conceive a child.
    3. Blood overflow of epididymis. This condition is accompanied by severe pain. Most often, a complication occurs after laparoscopic surgery.

    Despite the fact that the risk of complications is still present, it is minimal, and with proper treatment, all possible consequences can be eliminated. To reduce possible risks, it is necessary to carefully select the clinic and surgeon, and the patient himself must be responsible for his own health.

    First (1)

    There are no changes in the clustering of blood vessels. A patient may feel a little discomfort, the manifestations of which are associated with other causes.

    At this stage, the disease can last for a long time, only provoking factors will lead to its exacerbation.

    Complications arise after:

    • prolonged stress
    • hypothermia,
    • injuries
    • weakening of immunity.

    The 1st stage is characterized by the impossibility of visual determination of the pathology.

    Fourth (4)

    It is considered the last (neglected) stage of varicocele, in which the patient experiences persistent pain.

    Curvature of blood vessels, as well as the resulting swelling provoke scrotal growthwhile the testicle itself is reduced.

    Regardless of the patient’s position, contours of veins begin to stand out strongly.

    In this photo, you can see how the symptoms of 1, 2, 3 and neglected 4 degrees of varicocele in men in the groin look to more accurately understand what it is. Juvenile and faint of heart is not recommended to watch!

    Testicular location

      • Left side. Most often, pain is manifested in men on the left, where the renal vein is located, which is in contact with a number of passing vessels that pinched it. This is explained by the physiological structure of the genitals and blood vessels in them.
      • Right side. Varicocele on the right is very rare, has no pronounced symptoms. The present discomfort, expressed by pulling pain, manifests itself only after physical exertion.

    This pathology is not considered an independent disease. Its manifestations are affected by a genetic deviation or the acquisition of a venous insufficiency, which is provoked by malnutrition, work in a sitting position or lack of physical activity.

    • Two sided. It is caused by disorders that are triggered by the expansion of veins between the testis and inguinal ring. Pain symptoms are more manifested on the left, due to the significant length of the venous trunk, so the disease is often diagnosed as left-sided.

    Photos of varicocele on the left, right and both testicles are presented below. The faint of heart is not recommended to watch, as well as minors!

    Diagnostic measures

    1. Men rarely turn to a specialist because of unpleasant sensations, but even those who turn to face problems with diagnosis. Since at this stage of the development of the disease all the symptoms are hidden, to make a diagnosis using probing or visual observation becomes impossible. This pathology can be detected only with the help of dopplerography or ultrasound.
    2. Starting from the second degree, the doctor can diagnose visually or by probing the testicles. The only condition, the patient, must be in a standing position.
    3. The diagnosis is confirmed after an instrumental examination (ultrasound and dopplerography) and sperm for analysis. Confirmation of the diagnosis indicates the progression of the disease.
    4. In addition to instrumental examination and sperm analysis, you can diagnose varicocele in the doctor’s office. Pathology in the scrotum is visible regardless of the position of the patient.. With the help of palpation, the doctor determines the size of the testicles, as well as how wide the veins are.
    5. The neglect of the disease is visible without additional diagnosis (probing or equipment). Complaints of often throbbing pain, greatly dilated veins of the testicles or seminal channels give the ability to quickly establish a diagnosis.

    There are no threats to the life of a patient with varicocele, so many men with this problem prefer to bypass doctors. Ignoring the treatment leads the most innocent form of the disease to the last stage, and the result is childlessness.

    What is varicocele and the causes of its occurrence

    Varicocele is a pathological condition in which the expansion of the veins of the spermatic cord is diagnosed. Varicose veins are the result of impaired outflow and blood flow in the scrotum. Circulatory disturbance occurs due to “malfunctions” of the valve, which allows venous blood to flow back into the scrotum to the testicles. As a result of such failures, an increase in pressure in the veins occurs, and they gradually increase in volume. Due to a violation of the outflow of blood through the veins, it continues to flow through the smaller vessels. The latter can not cope with the heavy load and large amount of blood that they pass. This leads to the proliferation of small vessels.

    Varicocele in men occurs for several reasons:

    Varicose veins are a result of impaired outflow and blood flow in the scrotum

    1. Pathology of the structure of the scrotum veins or insufficiency of their valves.
    2. Regular and significant physical activity.
    3. Violation of intra-abdominal pressure (may be the result of an upset digestive system or be a congenital pathology).
    4. Obstruction of the veins of the scrotum and the formation of blood clots in them.
    5. Injury to the scrotum.
    6. Vascular wall depletion (is a congenital pathology).
    7. Increased vascular pressure in the pelvic organs. It is a consequence of compression of the renal veins.
    8. Tumor masses in the scrotum and kidneys.
    9. Varicose veins in the legs.
    10. Improper lifestyle (smoking, alcohol abuse and lack of physical activity).

    What is the danger of varicocele symptoms. Degrees of disease

    The expansion of veins in the spermatic cord is asymptomatic in most cases, especially in the first stage and less often in the second stage of the disease. The asymptomatic course of the disease carries a great danger, since a man alone is not able to recognize a varicocele and consult a urologist in a timely manner. Only at the last stage of the development of the disease can you independently notice the asymmetry of the scrotum, with severe physical exertion pain can appear in the groin, lower abdomen. The treatment of a man after the onset of symptoms carries a great danger and can cause many complications.

    Varicocele develops gradually and passes through 3 degrees:

    Grade 1, the disease is asymptomatic and the man cannot independently determine the pathology. This stage of the disease is diagnosed only at the urologist’s appointment by examining with a Valsalva test; additional studies using ultrasound and dopplerography are necessary to confirm the diagnosis.

    Grade 3 leads to marked changes in the scrotum

    2 degree of pathology is most often also asymptomatic. To make a diagnosis, a doctor's examination is necessary, which by probing determines the dilated vessels in the scrotum.Palpation gives results in both vertical and horizontal position. Palpation also takes into account the size and condition of the testis, which at this stage is not modified.

    Grade 3 leads to pronounced changes in the scrotum. Varicocele at this stage is accompanied by a feeling of discomfort and pain during exertion. During the examination, the doctor determines the dilated vessels and reveals the scrotum. Transillumination allows you to see the venous network. Due to the significant pressure of the veins on the testicle, it decreases in size and changes its consistency.

    The danger of varicocele

    Is varicocele disease dangerous? After all, the pathology itself does not lead to a threat to the patient’s life, however, it can cause serious complications that can disrupt the normal functioning of a man.

    So, what is the danger of varicocele?

    First of all, impaired blood flow in the scrotum leads to:

    • increasing its temperature, resulting in testicular hyperthermia,
    • decrease in blood flow to the testicle,
    • the accumulation of harmful compounds and free radicals in the testes,
    • casting blood and active substances into the scrotum along vessels from the kidneys and adrenal glands.

    These negative consequences of varicocele negatively affect the process of spermatogenesis: the number of spermatozoa decreases, morphologically abnormal sperm are synthesized. Sometimes varicocele can cause a complete absence of sperm in the ejaculate. Such processes lead to the fact that a man is no longer able to conceive a child - to infertility. Varicocele, as the cause of infertility, is diagnosed in more than 35% of men who have been diagnosed with this.

    Violation of blood flow leads to the reflux of blood with a high concentration of testosterone from the adrenal glands into the testes

    To cope with infertility resulting from a violation of blood flow in the scrotum, surgery is necessary to normalize blood flow and testicular functioning. After several months of recovery after surgery, a man will be able to conceive a child.

    Another reason for the development of infertility is varicocele and testosterone, or rather, a decrease in its level in the male body. It is known that adrenal glands and testes are responsible for the synthesis of testosterone. Violation of blood flow leads to the reflux of blood with a high concentration of testosterone from the adrenal glands into the testes. This is due to the proximity of the testicular vein and adrenal vein. After the blood enriched with hormones arrives, the testes determine that there is enough testosterone in the blood and reduce its production.

    What else leads to varicocele? This disease can also cause phimosis. It is diagnosed in most cases at a young age, when the boys do not open the penis due to the narrowing of the foreskin. A similar consequence indicates possible connective tissue deficiencies in the body.

    In order to prevent the development of complications, you should not wait for the varicocele to pass by itself. You should consult a urologist in time and, if necessary, perform an operation to prevent the negative effects of varicocele, including infertility.

    What to do to avoid the dangerous effects of varicocele

    There are no specific methods for preventing varicocele. To minimize the development of varicocele, you must adhere to these measures:

    1. Eat only the "right" food, which contains enough vitamins and minerals and has a beneficial effect on the digestive organs - this helps to reduce the risk of increased intra-abdominal pressure.
    2. After surgery, do not perform heavy physical exercises, minimize weight lifting.
    3. Undergo scheduled examinations by a urologist, who in a timely manner can determine the likelihood of pathology and deviations.
    4. In order to prevent stagnation of blood in the pelvic organs, it is necessary to lead an active lifestyle, do special physical exercises.

    Varicocele occurs as a result of circulatory disorders in the pelvic organs and scrotum. It is the result of many factors. Only a doctor can determine the disease in the early stages, through a series of studies. Therapeutic measures include only surgery on the scrotum to excise dilated veins. The greatest danger of the disease - varicocele can cause infertility in men.

    Varicocele - what is it?

    Varicocele is the expansion of the veins of the spermatic cord and testicles. Three degrees of varicocele are usually distinguished.

    • The first degree of varicocele: dilated wreaths are felt in a standing position, when the boy lies, they disappear. The child does not bother anything.
    • The second degree of varicocele: the child complains of pain in the scrotum, burning. The veins are visible, they fall below the testicle, the scrotum is asymmetric. At the same time, the testicle itself does not differ from the healthy one by touch.
    • The third degree is the degree of varicocele: veins in clusters “hang” in the scrotum, the testicle is small and soft. In this case, spermatogenesis is often disturbed, testicular atrophy may develop.

    Varicocele is a fairly common disease, it occurs on average in 10-15% of men. As a rule, it can occur during puberty and later, so do not forget that for a boy visiting a urologist or andrologist should be made as mandatory as a dentist or gynecologist for women. As they say, it is better to detect all the troubles in advance, and not when it is already "too late to drink Borjomi."

    Curious fact: usually varicocele develops on the left. Much less common is bilateral varicocele or right varicocele. This is most likely due to different outflow of venous blood from the right and left testicles: the vein from the left testicle travels a greater distance before flowing into a large vessel. As a result of this, the venous pressure on the left is higher, which gives a prerequisite for the development of varicose veins.

    What is dangerous varicocele.

    Varicocele alone is not dangerous. You can live and work with him normally - especially if it does not cause concern. The main problem is a typical complication of this disease, male infertility.

    With varicocele, the nutrition of the testicle is disrupted, which can lead to atrophy. In addition, the network of venous vessels around the testicle creates a kind of “pillow” that interferes with the normal outflow of heat. For normal spermatogenesis, a relatively low temperature is required: from 32.5 to 34.4 degrees. With varicocele, the temperature is higher, because of this, the formation of sperm is disturbed or completely stops.

    Another possible complication of varicocele is immune testicular inflammation.

    Reasons for Relapse

    The main means of controlling varicocele 3-4 degrees is surgery. However, the risk of a secondary manifestation of the disease, provided that surgery is used, cannot be ruled out. Most often, such changes are manifested due to the incompetence of the surgeon. Reasons for re-development may also consist in the severity of the course of the disease and the patient's particular characteristics. Relapse of the disease can most often be triggered by problems that occur during the rehabilitation period.

    The disease can recur when providing intervention according to a traditional technique called varicocelectomy.

    Such risks are associated with the fact that in the area of ​​the operation there is an impressive amount of small anastomoses and collateral veins that are injured by a scalpel during excision.

    The error may consist in defective ligation or illiterate elimination of injured veins.

    Violation of the sclerotherapy technique may consist in the introduction of a small amount of sclerosant.Particular structural features of the patient’s body can also provoke the appearance of a repeated pathology, namely, the venous walls have lost their tone, insufficient blood flow in the pelvic veins. Often the cause of development is the patient's non-compliance with the recommendations of a specialist.

    The list of main reasons is as follows:

    • features of the anatomical structure,
    • lack of valves
    • duplicate veins
    • genetic factor
    • slowing blood flow and stagnant processes,
    • venous wall weakness
    • loss of blood flow at the time of surgery,
    • incomplete distribution of the component during sclerotherapy.

    Often, the appearance of acute reactions is associated with laparoscopic manipulation. When mistakes are made, the risk of complications increases several times.

    How is varicocele diagnosed abroad?

    For an accurate diagnosis, the doctor conducts an initial examination of the patient's scrotum. This allows you to establish the severity of the disease. Further, foreign clinics recommend ultrasound with the use of dopplerography. This study is carried out with the patient standing and lying down. During the ultrasound examination carried out Valsalva test:

    • in the vertical position of the patient, the veins in the testicles increase,
    • if the patient is in a prone position, the vein is reduced in size.

    Then urine tests are performed before and after exercise. Also, patients with varicocele are shown such studies:

    • renal venography retrograde, which is produced after the introduction of a contrast drug into the veins of the testicles,
    • hormonal examinationwhich may include checking the concentrations of testosterone, prolactin, estradiol, follicle-stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone,
    • semiological examination or sperm examinationin which a decrease in the number of motile spermatozoa and an increase in the number of unhealthy sperm can be detected.

    Effective treatments for varicocele abroad

    In foreign clinics, varicocele treatment is planned individually for each patient. If there are no pronounced symptoms, doctors recommend confining themselves to medical observation of the disease.

    An operation on varicocele abroad is carried out only in cases where the patient is worried about severe pain, the appearance of signs of testicular atrophy or impaired spermatogenesis.

    How is it treated in Israel?

    Treatment of this disease at the Meir Medical Center is based on indicators of the severity of the process and the presence of characteristic symptoms. In severe cases, when the disease is started, surgery is performed. Surgical intervention for varicocele in Israeli clinics is carried out using dissection of varicose veins, which helps to restore the physiological outflow of blood in the scrotum veins.

    The most effective surgical treatment for varicocele in Israel. The operation does not require the use of general anesthesia and further hospitalization of the patient. The doctor makes a small incision on the skin in the scrotum, excises and / or completely removes the enlarged sections of the veins. This operation helps to normalize the outflow of blood from the testicle. Doctors recommend a spermogram a few months after the operation, which allows you to assess the number and degree of sperm motility.

    Surgery for varicocele is sometimes preventive in nature, and its goal is to prevent irreversible infertility.

    New methods of treating varicocele are used at the Meir Medical Center

    In addition to the surgical operation for varicocele in the Meir Clinic, unconventional methods of treating this disease are actively used. The effectiveness of drug treatment of varicocele has already been proven in practice. Such treatment can be prescribed after the operation of the patient in order to normalize spermatogenesis.The most commonly prescribed intake of a complex of vitamins, dietary supplements containing zinc, selenium. Hormonal drugs can sometimes be prescribed. Currently, MC Meir successfully uses microsurgical methods for treating varicocele. This reduces the risk of relapse or complications after surgery.

    Symptoms of Relapse

    Secondary varicocele does not differ in symptoms from the primary manifestation of the disease. Varicocele has a steady course and at an early stage of its progress does not provoke the appearance of severe symptoms. This condition aggravates the treatment, men do not go to the surgeon until they experience acute discomfort.

    The list of main symptoms of the re-manifestation of the disease looks like this:

    • groin pain intensifies after heavy exertion,
    • a feeling of heaviness manifests itself in the testicles during coitus,
    • there is a change in the size of the scrotum,
    • a man is bothered by a pulling pain.

    Often patients go to the surgeon to detect changes in the size of the scrotum. Symptoms of secondary varicocele are not observed intensively, because often men ignore them and hope that the situation stabilizes on their own. In fact, only a radical treatment using technological equipment will help eliminate the negative reaction.

    Attention!

    The neglected forms of varicocele can cause infertility and changes in the normal spermographic picture.

    Surgery for relapse should be done as soon as possible. Procrastination in this case worsens the patient's condition and increases the risk of postoperative complications. In some cases, recurrence of varicocele can be treated with conservative methods.

    How is the treatment

    To eliminate relapse, it is recommended to use methods that can eliminate negative reactions in a short amount of time. All surgical techniques are based on vascular ligation to ensure the normal distribution of blood flow to healthy arteries.

    The list of the most effective methods of therapy includes:

    1. Laparoscopy. An operation using a stethoscope, which is inserted into the abdominal part of the constricted vein. This method is safe and has a short recovery period.
    2. Bandaging veins with excision. The method has a low level of complications and provides a high probability of a full recovery.
    3. The technique of Ivanissevich. This method is often used to treat varicocele. The disadvantage of this method is the likelihood of complications and not high efficiency.
    4. Bypass surgery. After using the technique, blood clots may form.
    5. Sclerotherapy. This is a new treatment for varicocele. Sclerotherapy provides patient recovery in 98% of cases. The method is not considered to be traumatic.
    6. Embolization. With recurrent varicocele, this method is optimal. The main disadvantage is vein blockage followed by scarring.

    If the first signs of varicocele are identified, you need to visit a doctor. Timely therapy will allow the patient to get rid of the disease without surgery or using less traumatic techniques.

    Risk group

    Unfortunately, on the issue of varicocele incidence, it is impossible to single out the age or any other gradation of the greatest risk. The disease does not spare anyone. The disease can begin to develop at any age and is asymptomatic for a long time.

    The first feelings of discomfort can occur in adolescents at the stage of puberty. But even in these cases, young men get acquainted with their diagnosis, most often, by accident, undergoing another medical examination.

    On their own, they can notice only a slight increase in the left part of the scrotum and slight pulling sensations in the testicle, which can be observed only in an upright position, and in the horizontal sense of fullness immediately passes.As a rule, young people attribute this to the costs of growth and do not seek help from a urologist.

    Complications of Re-Intervention

    When applying modern technologies by experienced surgeons, complications after manipulation are not traced. Many individuals may experience changes such as:

    • edema on one or both sides of the scrotum, which is eliminated after a short time (patients are recommended to wear a special design to prevent puffiness)
    • pain and heaviness in the scrotum, which disappears after using non-steroidal anti-inflammatory compounds and antibiotics (glucocorticosteroids are prescribed by a doctor in extreme cases),
    • hydrocele is a common complication encountered by 50% of patients (pathology disappears after 10 months without treatment),
    • hypotrophy and atrophy of the testicles can be traced during interventions by some radical methods.

    Attention!

    When choosing sclerotherapy as a method of exposure in a man, an allergy to the introduced sclerosant can be traced. To exclude anaphylactic shock, Quincke's edema and other generalized reactions, the patient is recommended to remain in the surgical department under the supervision of medical personnel.

    Reviews

    Patient reviews report that the likelihood of recurrence of varicocele after surgery is quite high. It is impossible to choose a method that allows you to remove the risk of occurrence.

    Vitaliy, 32 years old, the city of Tambov.

    Two years ago, I noticed a change. The scrotum increased in size, and I was faced with pain during intercourse. Like everyone thought it would pass by itself, but the situation worsened daily. A month later, he went to the doctor, and determined the date of the operation according to Ivanissevich.

    The recovery period passed unnoticed by me. I thought that the disease completely receded, but relapse manifested itself a year later. I went to a private clinic and went for sclerotherapy. So far I am satisfied with the result, I hope the third time the disease does not return.

    Eugene, 36 years old, the city of Penza.

    The first varicocele operation was performed to me when I was 12 years old. Relapse was 2 years ago. Probably the first operation was carried out too early. This time, the laparoscopic method was used. Now I feel good, no complaints.

    Artyom, 27 years old, city of Moscow.

    Varicocele appeared in me two years ago. All this time I suffered and did not go to the doctor. The surgeon said that earlier the disease can be cured by taking pills, and now only surgery. I think which method is the safest and most acceptable; I really want children.

    When revealing the first signs of varicocele, you need to visit a urologist or surgeon. Timely diagnosis will allow you to get rid of the disease without radical methods or to choose the safest method of surgical intervention. Procrastination will cause a progressive deterioration in the well-being of the patient.

    Ivanissevich method or direct access

    The surgeon makes a fairly large incision of 3.5-4 cm, bandages the testicular vein and all enlarged branches.

    The disadvantages include high injuries caused by dissection of all subcutaneous layers, which leads to a long recovery period and relapse of the disease associated with the inability to bandage all hypertrophic areas due to their inaccessibility.

    What could be the consequences of varicocele in men? When you need to operate necessarily and what will happen if not treated

    Varicocele - varicose (cluster) veins of the plexus plexus within the spermatic cord. May result from organ venous renal hypertension and primary testicular wall insufficiency.

    Today, doctors still do not have a consensus on the need for varicocele treatment. This is due to the fact that the disease reaches a specific stage of its development and stops.

    And she often does not bring any discomfort to patients. That is why in some cases, experts leave the decision on the need for surgical intervention for the patient.

    Today we’ll talk about varicocele disease: if you don’t treat what happens, what affects varicocele in men, the symptoms and consequences of the disease.

    Microsurgical method of Marmara

    The surgeon makes a mini-incision, 1.5-3 cm, opposite the spermatic canal. The operation is performed using a microscope, which makes it more accurate and not traumatic for third-party vessels and nerve fibers.

    Advantages - a shorter rehabilitation period, a low percentage of relapses, and the absence of side injuries.

    The disadvantage is that such an operation can be carried out only in the early stages of the disease.

    Laparoscopic method

    The method of operation consists in guiding a specialized microcamera into the affected vein through a small puncture and blocking of the deformed areas by applying staples.

    The advantages include: low injuries, a shorter recovery period, the practical absence of relapse. But the method is impossible in the presence of a strong inflammatory process.

    Testis revascularization method

    The indication for this method is the severe stage of the disease with severe pain and significant deviations of the spermogram. Through a horizontal incision above the inguinal canal, the surgeon raises and removes the testicular vein, in the place of which the epigastric vein is sutured.

    The indisputable advantage of this method is the immediate restoration of natural blood flow in the inguinal region and scrotum and a full guarantee of the absence of relapse.

    However, the complexity of the operation and the high possibility of injury, suggests such a choice only if it is impossible to achieve the desired result in another way.

    Recovery period

    The duration and course of the recovery period depends on the degree of the disease, the type of surgery performed and the age of the man.

    • So, with abdominal recovery operations, it takes from 7 to 21 days, depending on the age of the patient and possible complications.
    • After endovascular surgery, most of the operated patients recover in 1-2 days.
    • The endoscopic method, carried out through a puncture, minimizes the possibility of complications and 2 days are enough to recover.
    • Microsurgical varicocelectomy is characterized by the best indicators of spermogram improvement and the absence of relapses, the recovery is 2-3 days.

    Does the disease affect male fertility?

    It was difficult for doctors to give an answer to this question, since childless couples rarely agree to participate in various kinds of experiments. However, the result of the study showed that 40% of men have infertility due to varicocele.

    The mechanism of the effect of this disease on male fertility has not yet been studied by doctors. It is only known that an increase in veins causes a violation of the thermoregulatory function of the scrotum, which prevents the normal production of sperm.

    Also, the disease reduces testosterone levels.

    Complications in the postoperative period

    Modern high-tech techniques make it possible to do the least traumatic and effective operations. But their high cost and inaccessibility in remote areas that do not have the necessary equipment makes it more likely to conduct open operations, after which the percentage of various complications and relapses is much higher.

    • Dropsy of the testicle. It occurs due to an injury to the lymphatic system and the accumulation and stagnation of lymph in the scrotum and testicle shell.
    • The return of the disease after a short period.
    • Painful manifestations of varying intensity. They can hold for 6 months or longer.
    • Testicular atrophy. The most serious consequence leading to the loss of reproductive function. It is a consequence of a violation of the integrity of the seminal artery.

    With any of the above or any other complication, it is imperative to consult a doctor for recommendations.

    Sex after treatment

    On average, after surgery, the period of abstinence is from 14 to 20 days. More accurate dates can only be determined by the attending physician, based on the course of the postoperative period.

    If you violate the recommendations, pain during sexual intercourse is possible. Sometimes patients complain of pain in the later stages of recovery. However, erectile function in the vast majority of patients persists.

    Varicocele in men: consequences after surgery

    The most rare consequences after varicocele surgery are ureter ligation and iliac veins. Common surgical consequences include inflammation, bleeding and suppuration of the wound.

    The earliest possible complication after surgery is lymphostasis of the left half of the scrotum. Its cause may be ligation or damage to the lymphatic vessels during surgery. Already in the first day there is swelling of the scrotum. In this case, it is necessary to take the suspension for 4-5 days.

    Hypotrophy and testicular atrophy considered the most dangerous complication. The possibility of this problem after surgery is less than 0.5%.

    About 10% of patients pain may persist for several months after surgery. We are talking about aching pain in the testicle and along the spermatic cord.

    Within 2 years after surgery, the patient may be diagnosed with a disease hydrocele. The main reason for the appearance of such a disease is the intersection of the lymphatic vessels accompanying the testicular artery and vein, or a violation of the venous outflow of blood from the testicle. Also appears due to chronic venous stasis in the epididymis.

    In children it often happens relapse varicocele. According to statistics, the run-up is large: from 10 to 87%. In adults, the reappearance of this disease is observed in 9% of cases.

    There is a pattern: the lower the cost of surgery, the more likely a relapse. So, in microsurgery, the possibility of re-expansion of the veins in the scrotum does not exceed 2%, and after Bernardi's surgery, 5%.

    When using endovascular methods, the patient may experience an allergic reaction to a contrast medium, pain in the left inguinal region, venous thrombophlebitis and perforation of the vessel walls.

    Is leukospermia possible after varicocele surgery? Practice shows that within 3-6 months after a successful operation, sperm quality improves markedly, which positively affects the reproductive function of men. Thus, leukospermia cannot occur.

    However, there is a risk of its development in the presence of concomitant diseases. Most often, it occurs with prostatitis, vesiculitis, funiculitis, ochoepididymitis and some other diseases.

    The consequences of varicocele can be very deplorable if you do not start treating the disease on time. However, given that the operation is performed under general anesthesia, For adult men who have a family and children, doctors do not recommend surgical treatment or leave the decision to the patient.

    In this case, before reaching adulthood, all patients who have been diagnosed with this disease, it is recommended to undergo surgery to exclude the possibility of infertility in the future.

    To find varicocele in time you need to inspect your scrotum yourself every six months and undergo preventive examinations by specialists once a year.

    Useful video

    In the video below, the specialist will talk about the most common consequences of varicocele:

    What could be the consequences of varicocele in men? When you need to operate necessarily and what will happen if not treated

    Varicocele - varicose (cluster) veins of the plexus plexus within the spermatic cord. May result from organ venous renal hypertension and primary testicular wall insufficiency.

    Today, doctors still do not have a consensus on the need for varicocele treatment. This is due to the fact that the disease reaches a specific stage of its development and stops.

    And she often does not bring any discomfort to patients. That is why in some cases, experts leave the decision on the need for surgical intervention for the patient.

    Today we’ll talk about varicocele disease: if you don’t treat what happens, what affects varicocele in men, the symptoms and consequences of the disease.

    The consequences of varicocele if untreated

    Often the disease is asymptomatic, however children and adolescents are recommended to have surgery for the prevention of infertility and other complications. The consequences of varicocele if you do not do the operation include:

    • Hypotrophic changes in the testicle up to its atrophy.
    • The presence of pain syndromes due to stretching of the spermatic cord and blockage of blood vessels.
    • Scrotum hematoma or rupture of a venous node.
    • Sagging scrotum.
    • Immune inflammation of the testicle, testicular hypoxia, the accumulation of free radicals on it, which damage its tissue.

    These consequences are possible when the disease reaches the final stages of development. Due to its slow development, it may take several years. The development of concomitant diseases of the genitourinary system is not excluded the patient.

    Consequences when reaching grade 3

    The consequences of varicocele 3 degrees can greatly change the life of a man. Him significant aching pain in the scrotum. It can be constant or periodic. In the latter case, appears in a sitting or standing position, but disappears if the man lies down. She also has a place to be during intercourse.

    The shape of the scrotum changes. Due to inflammation of the tissues of the skin and muscles, it increases in size. Enlarged veins are well visualized. They negatively affect the thermoregulatory function of the scrotum and surround the testicle.

    Due to the effects of veins, the temperature in the scrotum rises and testicles cannot produce seminal fluid. It causes male infertility. Testicular asymmetry is also observed. They are reduced in size. The affected half sags, which negatively affects the aesthetic component.

    In laboratory and instrumental research, a change is detected not only in size, but also in testicular consistency. The spermogram shows that the number of active sperm is significantly reduced, as well as their ability to fertilize the egg. In some cases, sperm completely ceases to be produced.

    Varicocele does not affect the function of urination. Also erectile function remains normal.

    Does the disease affect male fertility?

    It was difficult for doctors to give an answer to this question, since childless couples rarely agree to participate in various kinds of experiments. However, the result of the study showed that 40% of men have infertility due to varicocele.

    The mechanism of the effect of this disease on male fertility has not yet been studied by doctors. It is only known that an increase in veins causes a violation of the thermoregulatory function of the scrotum, which prevents the normal production of sperm.

    Also, the disease reduces testosterone levels.

    Varicocele in men: consequences after surgery

    The most rare consequences after varicocele surgery are ureter ligation and iliac veins. Common surgical consequences include inflammation, bleeding and suppuration of the wound.

    The earliest possible complication after surgery is lymphostasis of the left half of the scrotum. Its cause may be ligation or damage to the lymphatic vessels during surgery. Already in the first day there is swelling of the scrotum. In this case, it is necessary to take the suspension for 4-5 days.

    Hypotrophy and testicular atrophy considered the most dangerous complication. The possibility of this problem after surgery is less than 0.5%.

    About 10% of patients pain may persist for several months after surgery. We are talking about aching pain in the testicle and along the spermatic cord.

    Within 2 years after surgery, the patient may be diagnosed with a disease hydrocele. The main reason for the appearance of such a disease is the intersection of the lymphatic vessels accompanying the testicular artery and vein, or a violation of the venous outflow of blood from the testicle. Also appears due to chronic venous stasis in the epididymis.

    In children it often happens relapse varicocele. According to statistics, the run-up is large: from 10 to 87%. In adults, the reappearance of this disease is observed in 9% of cases.

    There is a pattern: the lower the cost of surgery, the more likely a relapse. So, in microsurgery, the possibility of re-expansion of the veins in the scrotum does not exceed 2%, and after Bernardi's surgery, 5%.

    When using endovascular methods, the patient may experience an allergic reaction to a contrast medium, pain in the left inguinal region, venous thrombophlebitis and perforation of the vessel walls.

    Is leukospermia possible after varicocele surgery? Practice shows that within 3-6 months after a successful operation, sperm quality improves markedly, which positively affects the reproductive function of men. Thus, leukospermia cannot occur.

    However, there is a risk of its development in the presence of concomitant diseases. Most often, it occurs with prostatitis, vesiculitis, funiculitis, ochoepididymitis and some other diseases.

    The consequences of varicocele can be very deplorable if you do not start treating the disease on time. However, given that the operation is performed under general anesthesia, For adult men who have a family and children, doctors do not recommend surgical treatment or leave the decision to the patient.

    In this case, before reaching adulthood, all patients who have been diagnosed with this disease, it is recommended to undergo surgery to exclude the possibility of infertility in the future.

    To find varicocele in time you need to inspect your scrotum yourself every six months and undergo preventive examinations by specialists once a year.

    Useful video

    Consultation with a specialist regarding the possible consequences of testicular varicose veins in men:

    Varicocele - consequences after surgery requiring urgent intervention

    The effectiveness of treatment for varicocele depends on what method was chosen to combat the disease. Some methods of surgical intervention require special accuracy during the procedure.

    There is a risk of accidental damage to the arteries when varicocele is removed. The consequences after surgery are eliminated by repeated surgical intervention.

    To prevent the development of complications, it is necessary to timely conduct diagnostic procedures in the postoperative period and follow the recommendations of the surgeon.

    Pain after varicocele surgery, temperature and other symptoms

    Any kind of operation leads to discomfort during recovery

    The speed of recovery after surgery is determined by the methodology for its implementation. For example, after laparoscopy, the patient recovers quickly enough.

    Any kind of operation leads to discomfort during recovery. This is due to damage to the soft tissues and the structure of the vessels during the removal of varicocele.

    The consequences after surgery are natural and pathological. The first include:

    • pain in the groin,
    • fever
    • swelling of the tissues
    • scar formation at the site of the incision.

    The soreness should become less intense. If this does not happen, you need to consult a doctor for advice. An increase in body temperature is the physiological response of the body to the intervention. When it appears, it is important to exclude the presence of an inflammatory process by passing appropriate tests.

    Swelling is an individual reaction of the body. Do not confuse it with dropsy of the testicle. In the first case, the tumor gradually subsides, and with dropsy, it grows and is accompanied by severe pain.

    The early postoperative period is characterized by a slight isolation of the anemone from the suture area, redness of the skin surface and the formation of a hematoma.

    With proper care, these signs disappear within 4-5 days after surgery.

    On a note! Yellow-brown discharge from the suture area indicates the presence of an inflammatory process. In this case, it is necessary to immediately begin antimicrobial therapy.

    Degrees of development

    Determined by the volume of increase in the veins of the spermatic cord and testis:

    1. Grade 1 - is determined using dopplerography or ultrasound, since palpation does not give a convincing result.
    2. Grade 2 - vein expansion is diagnosed only in an upright position.
    3. Grade 3 - veins retain hypertrophy in both vertical and horizontal positions.
    4. Grade 4 is absolutely obvious, it is worth taking a look at the pathologically hypertrophied veins of the spermatic cord and testis.

    Since the onset of varicocele disease is characterized by an asymptomatic course, the disease is most often detected with random or scheduled physical examinations.

    The second degree of varicocele is about 10% of all recorded cases. The third degree is less than 5-7% of the total number of cases.

    Varicocele: consequences and complications of the disease

    Many men, turning to the urologist for any reason, receive a disappointing diagnosis of varicocele.

    They had no idea about the presence of this problem, since only 15% of representatives of a strong half of the population had pain and discomfort.

    The patient begins to worry - how the disease will affect in the future, how it will affect his family life and the ability to have children.

    Infertility

    If you do not pay attention to possible signs of a developing disease, you can miss the time of the necessary medical intervention and lose the opportunity to have your own children. Almost 40% of male infertility is associated with this disease, which are divided into the following forms:

    1. Immune infertility - when your own immunity rebels against your own sperm. Such a violation can develop in the third stage of the disease.
    2. Endocrine - along with varicocele, other diseases fall on the body, disrupting spermatogenesis and sperm viability.

    If the disease occurs at an early age, the possibility of infertility is very high. But these complications are easily avoided by contacting a urologist in time for advice. Indeed, in most patients, reproductive function is fully restored six months after surgery.

    The effect of the disease on the body as a whole

    By itself the process of expansion of the veins in the testicle does not threaten life, and allows you to live, as before. The danger of the disease lies in the complications that may appear in the future - infertility and the presence of constantly disturbing pains.

    An egg braided by a large number of vessels loses the function of temperature control in the place where it is located. Testicular tissues do not receive enough oxygen due to the action of elongated varicose veins, which pressure it mechanically.

    The main complications

    One of the most common complications is relapse.

    Problems in the postoperative period arise with a violation of the technique of surgical intervention.

    Deviations are possible as a result of constriction of the vessels of adipose tissue, affecting the hypogastric or muscle veins, the implementation of an excessively narrow incision.

    Due to the last violation, the clip fixing the vein is rejected. The following are the pathological complications after varicocele testis surgery

    1. Lymphostasis Occurs as a result of accidental vascular damage during surgery. To eliminate the pathology, wearing a bandage is required.
    2. Hormonal disorders. They provoke damage to the appendages during surgery. Most often there are problems with the production of testosterone. Deviations are eliminated with the help of medications.
    3. Migration of sclerosing substance. The cause of the complication is pulmonary thromboembolism. The development of the pathological process is indicated by shortness of breath and a sharp decrease in pressure. After detecting these symptoms, you must take the man to the hospital.
    4. Pain They are provoked by excessive tension of the veins, as a result of which the sensitivity of the nerve endings is disturbed. Over time, the pain goes away as the suture heals. If this does not happen, an examination is required to determine the cause of the pain syndrome.
    5. Dropsy testicle. It occurs when fluid accumulates in the scrotum. Pathology is accompanied by pulling pain. The problem is solved by the operation to remove accumulated fluid.
    6. Testicular atrophy. Pathology can be suspected by a sharp change in the size of the organ. Atrophy is the result of damage to the seminal artery during surgery.

    One of the most common complications is a relapse of the disease. Each type of surgical intervention has a certain percentage of probability of the return of the pathological process. In the case of traditional surgery, it is 40%, with endovascular treatment - 15%, laparoscopy - up to 10% and microsurgical surgery - no more than 2%.

    Important! At first, the veins of the testis may look dilated, as before the operation. This is associated with structural features of the veins of the spermatic cord and testis.

    FAQ

    How does varicocele affect potency?

    This disease does not affect the quality of erection and sexual desire.

    • What does it mean if dilated veins are preserved after surgery?

    In this case, sperm analysis should be done and Dopplerography performed. If violations are found, the doctor may decide to reoperate.

    • Why does the testicle enlarge or hurt after surgery?

    Prolonged pain and enlargement of the testicle, a fairly common occurrence of the postoperative period caused by various causes. All these questions can only be solved by your doctor after a second examination.

    • Are light physical activities acceptable after surgery?

    It is difficult to determine what each individual person puts into the concepts of light and heavy loads. Therefore, such issues are discussed individually for each case.

    • Are sex or masturbation after surgery permissible?

    In the recovery period, it is better to refrain from both of them, and after complete rehab, the sex life should be of the same quality as before the operation.

    • Is sports after surgery acceptable?

    Sports can be attributed to other physical activities, with relevant recommendations.

    • What diet should be followed after surgery?

    You should refrain from alcohol, as it promotes dehydration and legitimizes constipation. Light Mediterranean cuisine, rich in vitamins and contributing to trouble-free defection, is preferable.

    The main conclusion that can be drawn is very simple - if a man wants to be healthy himself and have healthy children, he needs to be a little more attentive to his health and not be ashamed to consult a doctor even with the mildest symptoms.

    Complications after surgical treatment

    A patient who underwent an Ivaniseevich operation may subsequently have testicular dropsy. In this case, there is a violation of the outflow of lymphatic fluid, after which it fills the scrotum.

    During this operation, the lymphatic vessels and testicular vein are ligated. With this outcome, specialists prescribe a puncture, or a second operation.

    The consequences after surgery for varicocele in men can be expressed in testicular atrophy. This is rare, but serious health hazard in this case. The result of the process of atrophy is a decrease in the size of the testicle and the loss of the ability to conceive.

    Blood overflow of epididymis. This problem happens when the patient undergoes laparoscopic surgery.

    Consequences of a different nature after the intervention by surgeons are also possible:

    • the presence of small hematomas,
    • puffiness surrounding the postoperative wound,
    • redness of the skin,
    • discharge of a reddish clear fluid from the incision site.
    • These phenomena are not dangerous for the patient, and are very common in patients.

    With more dangerous symptoms, specialist help is needed:

    1. increase in temperature in the postoperative period,
    2. swelling, redness, and severe pain are observed in the wound area,
    3. brownish, yellowish liquid with an unpleasant odor oozes from the section
    4. the presence of large hematomas.

    Dangerous signs requiring medical attention

    After the operation to remove varicocele in men, the rehabilitation process follows. It requires special care on the part of the patient and medical personnel. The development of complications is indicated by the appearance of the following symptoms:

    • purulent discharge from the seam area,
    • high body temperature,
    • throbbing pain at the incision site,
    • the appearance of severe edema,
    • persistent redness in the testicle,
    • general weakness and malaise,
    • resizing of the scrotum.

    In rare cases, the nerve endings of the inner thigh are randomly affected during surgery. This leads to numbness or decreased sensitivity in this area.

    3-6 months after surgery, it is necessary to undergo a study to determine the quality of seminal fluid. Low rates of analysis indicate that the operation was not effective enough. In this case, it needs to be repeated. In some cases, medications that stimulate spermatogenesis are required.

    Interesting! In order to prevent complications in the postoperative period, it is forbidden to practice sexual acts, lift heavy objects and play sports. The duration of rehabilitation in each case varies.

    To prevent the development of complications, it is necessary to follow the recommendations of the surgeon

    The dangerous effects of varicocele surgery are rare. The effect of varicocelectomy on reproductive health is mostly positive. Compliance with surgical techniques by doctors provides a positive outcome for the operation. The patient's task is to periodically visit the urologist and follow his recommendations.

    In what cases is the treatment of varicocele with surgery indicated?

    Specialists who should be contacted to diagnose and prescribe measures to combat the disease are andrologist and urologist.

    Indications for treatmentresorting to surgery, are:

    • discomfort and pain in the groin area. If the patient experiences even mild pain, this indicates the presence of microtrobes and an inflammatory process that covers the dilated vessels in the plexus,
    • impossibility of conception with impaired spermatogenesis with varicose veins in the spermatic cord,
    • the presence of a cosmetic defectleading to the complexes of an afflicted person,
    • for preventive purposesto rule out infertility. In this matter, doctors disagree and hold different points of view.

    It should be noted that treatment with medications, restriction of physical labor, and wearing corrective underwear are unable to completely relieve the patient of the disease.

    When choosing a surgical method of treatment, the doctor takes into account the patient's age and stage of the disease. In modern times as a microsurgical method mainly use varicocelectomy.

    In the event of a decrease in spermogram results in the absence of other manifestations of the disease, regular visits to a urologist are recommended for the purpose of prevention.

    See how the operation is performed with varicocele in the article.

    Find out here how alternative treatment for varicocele is done.

    And on this page: https://man-up.ru/bolezni/andrologiya/varikotsele/prichinyi.html you can find out in detail about the causes of varicocele

    Relapse varicocele

    Testicular varicose veins in men (varicocele) may recur.

    Pathology is difficult. It becomes difficult for a man to sit and engage in habitual activities.

    In this case, the pathology is difficult and is accompanied by intense pain and heaviness in the scrotum. It becomes difficult for a man to sit and engage in habitual activities. Any movement causes severe discomfort.

    Complications after surgery

    Complications after varicocele, which arise as a result of surgical intervention, can affect both one testicle and both simultaneously. It depends on the type of operation. Often, as a result of the intervention, severe edema can occur, which persists for a long time. Varicocelectomy often provokes the appearance of purulent discharge with an unpleasant odor.

    Watch the video: Varicocele Repair (February 2020).

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